BULLETS 1 to 3: .Any findings can then be used to fill in the gaps that may exist in the extended use of Australian public libraries by traditional and techie users. The reason I chose this project is apparently due to the technological breakthroughs (e.g., Internet, cloud computing, and mobile devices) where information is readily accessible and available to the “web-savvy population” (Freeman, 2014; Hammond, 2002; Strange, 2008). As such, public libraries are among those who adopt or implement innovative programs and services (e.g., web-based lending service and security features) (Strange, 2008). For instance, many public libraries decided to open longer hours or operate “outside the normal opening hours” because of users’ demands (McNicol, 2009; Moore, 2008; Vidal, 1993). However, these inchoate uses of technological innovations also have repercussions, such as high operating costs (Sowell & Nutefall, 2014). On the positive note, these days, newer technological security system are used to store, retrieve and safeguard library collections, data and other information over the Internet rather than on a local servers. Libraries can now even use any applications without worrying about security issues and the supporting powerful web-scale technological services. This is the magic of cloud-based library system, which is a highly scalable platform because of easy management and instant access to software and hardware over the Web even non-expert library users. Moreover, Library Clouds rely on virtualization, on-demand services, optimal performance, load balancing, scalability, and multi-tenancy for convenient and instant access to resources. In short, Library Clouds offer economies of scale because of the efficient utilization of human, software and hardware resources (Corrado, & Moulaison, 2012; Julisch, & Hall, 2010; Romero, 2012). Library Clouds can also operate simultaneously with the libraries’ physical system for greater library users’ benefits and satisfaction, lower operations costs and greater accessibility. As early as in this part of my presentation, the answer to the above bullets is that public libraries can optimize or extend their opening hours or days by implementing a highly secured, low-cost, internal, private cloud-based library system, which “are now a possibility” (Goldberg, et al., 2014).
Slide 2 of 9: Project Objectives
Prior to arriving at the findings of my literature review, here is a list of this project’s three (3) specific objectives:
- Study the benefits of and challenges/obstacles to optimising public library hours using the Cloud
- Highlight not only the opportunities in using highly secured cloud-based technological solutions in public libraries both in Australia and abroad
- Explore other possible ways of optimising library opening hours using low-cost, private, highly secured cloud-based technologies
BULLET 1: . while presenting the disparities in spending with extended opening hours/days of public libraries (Spencer, 1995)
BULLET 2: .but also how challenges and issues are resolved concerning library opening hours optimization and public library funding
BULLET 3: to keep abreast with the evolving technologies, changing times, users’ expectations and demands, and security issues.
SLide 3 of 9: Research Questions
- What cloud-based library technologies and securities that the Brisbane City Council public library’s management staff can use for its various services and programs during the extended hours?
- How many public library staffs and specialists are needed for its extended opening hours/days based on users’ demands?
- What are the best practices that the Brisbane City Council public library can adopt with their extended opening hours?
BULLETS 1 to 3: To explore the answers to the aforesaid research questions, I completed a literature review about the current conditions of public libraries’ extended opening hours due to users’ demands and how cloud-based technologies and security system was the solution and trend. I then analyzed and interpreted the results of my literature review as the definitive answers to the said research questions (Curtis, 2011).
Slide 4 of 9: Benefits of Extended Library Hours
First, let me start by presenting to you the benefits of extended library hours, as follows:
- allows patrons to access materials conveniently
- longer visiting hours for “serious readers” (Devarai & Devarai, 1997)
- social commitment of librarians
BULLETS 1 to 3: Optimized library hours [mention the three (3) bullets above]. For example, university students were 90% satisfied with the 24/5 library structure because it assisted their learning process (Sowell & Nutefall, 2014). On the other hand, a similar 24-hour library system used by universities in Nigeria found it to be too costly and requires better institutional funding (Oseghale & Jacob, 2013; Sowell & Nutefall, 2014). Despite anything to the latter statement, cloud-based technology is the most promising economic model to date for library and information centers (Singh & Veralakshmi, 2012). Further, the web-savvy population will continue to grow exponentially as technology evolves and becomes readily available and cheaper.
Slide 5 of 9: The Need to optimize library opening hours using cloud-based technology and security solutions
Technological breakthroughs and their use have changed the world’s landscape and will continue to do so for years to come. This is because:
- Widespread technologies enhance lives globally
- Mobile phones had penetrated 61% of the world's population (Bridges, et al., 2010).
- Libraries have to adopt (or evolve) or die out (Strange, 2008)
BULLET 1: .such as the World Wide Web or Internet where any Internet user can quickly, easily and conveniently access information virtually anywhere, anytime.
BULLET 2: Based on a report, for instance, .and mobile data traffic is expected to increase each year (Bridges, et al., 2010)
BULLET 3: Before adopting a re-structuring of new library systems, libraries have to check the practical aspects and implications of adopting newer technologies. Questions that need to be addressed include: How will library embrace constantly changing technologies? [Answer: Going with the technological flow.] Will it be more costly in the long run? [Answer: No, because newer technologies help cut long-term expenses.] How will information be stored, retrieved, and secured in the years to follow? [Answer: Today and in the years to come, information is best stored, retrieved and secure in the “cloud,” which will be explained in the succeeding slides]. How will it impact traditional users, self-directed learners, digital natives, etc.? [Answer: The cloud technology is suited for a wide range of learners and Internet users.] What new forms of information may develop (Hendrix, 2010)? [Answer: More probably, as technology becomes better each year, information may be developed in virtual, holographic, etc. forms.] At present, however, public libraries should find ways to do away with their image of having “fragmented presence on the Web” by adopting a “next generation services in the computing cloud” (Jordan, 2011).
Slide 6 of 9: cloud-based technology and security solutions are the solutions in meeting users’ demands for optimized library hours
So, again, why implement a cloud-based library platform?
- Cloud-based library technologies and security solutions (CBLTSS)
- For libraries to reach out to patrons more effectively;
- For libraries to create better staff efficiencies; and,
- For libraries to save more money on work force and new services (Lambright & Flores, 2012).
On the other side, some professionals and experts have questions about cloud security, which are being resolved using:
- Trusted third party (Zissis & Lekas, 2012)
- Layered framework (Hamlen, et al., 2010)
- The Cloud is NOT a security nightmare (Singh, 2013)
BULLET 1: .This is because CBLTSS offers the following: [Please read sub-bullets in the slide above]. Cloud-based networks are participatory infrastructures where every user actively can take part in a conversation concerning library collections, subscriptions, etc. in real-time without being problematic about the use of supporting powerful library and related applications (Lankes, et al, 2007; “The State of Americas Libraries,” 2014). In other words, with CBLTSS, public libraries can retain their relevancy when they have the best distributive scheduling approach possible only with a cloud technology (MacWhinnie 2003). With cloud-based library system, there is a better or enhanced implementation of a distributive scheduling pattern, which is the most effective scheduling approach as it uses both utilitarian and egalitarian scheduling approaches (Delafontaine, et al., 2011). Likewise, the distributive scheduling pattern in cloud technology resolves issues on varying levels of wealth and accessibility especially of differently-abled library users when accessing libraries (Copeland, 2010; Neuman & Celano, 2001; Park, 2012).
BULLET 2: To address public libraries’ cloud computing security issues (e.g., misused or stolen information), a trusted third party with the sole responsibility of maintaining security with greater specificity is necessary (Zissis & Lekas, 2012)
BULLET 3: The layered framework provides a structure within the cloud to ensure information security. It is necessary that the stored data be encrypted so that in the event of a security breach, the dishonest party will not be able to access the material (Hamlen, et al, 2010).
BULLET 4: For Singh (2013), the cloud is not a security nightmare given that the challenges and risks on disaster recovery, data migration, and data assurances are constantly being anticipated and monitored.
Slide 7 of 9: Answers to the Research Questions
- What cloud-based public library technologies and security features that the management staff from Brisbane City Council public library can use for its various programs and services of public libraries during the extended hours?
- How many library specialists and staffs are needed for the optimized opening hours based on user demands?
- What are the best practices and challenges that the Brisbane City Council public library can adopt or possibly encounter with their extended opening hours?
BULLET 1: Answer – The Brisbane City Council public library should use a trusted third party who uses layered framework for its highly secured cloud library system where a 24/7 distributive scheduling approach is the ideal choice.
BULLET 2: Answer – Once the cloud library system is in place, typically, the same number of library specialists and staffs are needed for the optimized opening hours. In case of the need for additional staff, it will depend wholly on the specialization need for library services.
BULLET 3: Answer - According to Bingsi (2009), the role of the librarians should be the central focus and that the infrastructure for cloud library management should be based on the best practices from case studies or reports to ensure data and information security.
Slide 8 of 9: Best Practices and recommendations
Public libraries should:
- operate under a cloud-based secured platform as virtual destinations (Thomas, 2010)
- be cloud-based community centers
- provide continuous regular internet accessibility for their cloud-based secure library system
- Newer safety strategies
Despite any security threats, public libraries should adopt to technological evolutions because it is the best thing to do to optimized library opening hours and thus meet users’ expectations and demands and for libraries to continue to expand their services in this constantly evolving world.
BULLET 1: Public libraries that operate under a cloud-based secured platform will continue to be electronic, digital or virtual destinations or libraries of today and in years to come (Thomas, 2010)
BULLET 2: With cloud-based library technologies and security solutions, public libraries are community centers and not just repository of information
BULLET 3: Public libraries should provide continuous regular internet accessibility for their cloud-based secure library system (Joergensen, et al., 2001)
BULLET 5: Newer safety strategies or security features are more up-to-date when using cloud-based paradigm where the U.S. National Security Agency counts on it to boost cyber-security (Rashid, 2011)
Slide 9 of 9: Final Notes
- Library evolution remains in its early phases. but
- Changes in the public library system provide distinct challenges to evolution
- Adopting technological changes require government-wide guidance to assist public libraries implementing Cloud (“INFORMATION SECURITY Governmentwide Guidance Needed to Assist Agencies in Implementing Cloud Computing,” 2010)
BULLET 1: but the fact stands that public libraries exist to serve an entire local and even global community. In order to do this, public libraries must transform themselves as “Library Cloud(s)” (Corrado, & Moulaison, 2012). And as the Library Clouds become the trend, “librarians need to position themselves to take full advantage of this trend” (Sorensen, & Glassman, 2011)
BULLET 2: of making adjusted access to the physical space, but with highly secured, low cost and internal/private cloud-based technology, the possibilities are open for adoption as long as there are “proactive attention and planning for responsible care of digital data” (.
BULLET 3: .as the evolution of technology is so new or constantly evolving, it is difficult to draw conclusions. For instance, cloud services are “changing quickly” such that “Google has stated that its APIs are experimental” (Han, 2013). But, on a definitive note, we can neither ignore change nor go with the flow because it could mean perishing in the haystack of innovations, breakthroughs, and ‘unknowns of the future’
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