1. Read chapter seven from Forrest McDonald, E Pluribus Unum: The Formation of the American Republic, 1776-1790. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 1979, the answer the following questions. This rubric will be used to score your response question assignments. (20 pts.)
a. What problems faced the Philadelphia convention from its inception?
The convention faced some problems during its inception, which would ultimately jeopardize its practicality. First, was the challenge of identifying which power was legitimate as provide in the convention. Furthermore, the convention did not contain the bill of rights which were the fundamental aspects initially sought. Absence of this hampered the route to success. Additionally, there existed the tussle between the republicans and the democrats. In most instances, these two groups often have different ideologies and each would like their wishes to be fulfilled. This became eminent during this convention eventually arousing the challenges to the convention (Forrest, 310).
b. Where were the primary divisions at the convention?
The primary source of division in the ratification of the convention was the division of power into four parts. It became awkward that power was believed to serve the interest of the citizen but would not originate from within. However, the most prominent of all divisions were the diverse ideologies shared by the republicans and the democrats. This became the greatest challenge and obstacle to the success of the ratification of the convention (Forrest, 316).
c. How were those divisions healed? (What compromises did they reach to overcome their divisions?)
The actualization of the governmental principle was achieved through compromise within the parties concerned. Despite the skepticism, the convection had to be ratified through compromises like corruption, under-table dealings, while other made respectable compromises. Despite the miscalculation and lack of symmetry, the compromises became more appealing to the public with much lobbying and bribery (Forrest, 317).
2. Read Federalist No. 10. You may also listen to the Federalist No. 10 podcast. Answer the following questions. This rubric will be used to score your response question assignments.
a. What is "faction," and why is faction dangerous, according to Madison? (20 pts.)
According to Madison in Federalist #10, faction is the situation where majority of citizens towards achieving a common goal through mischief or passion. This may be achieved through the elimination of causes of the planned mischief or controlling the effects (Madison para.4).
b. How can you get rid of faction, according to Madison?
Madison identifies two ways of getting rid of faction. The first method is the destruction of liberty, which forms part of its survival. The second method is achieved by ensuring that all citizens have a common ground in terms of interests, passions and opinions.
c. Madison claims the methods mentioned in question b won't work. Why not?
According to Madison, removal of the causes of faction can be accomplished in two ways: By destruction of liberty which is essential to survival of the faction and by giving similar opinions, interests and passion to all citizens. Madison says, just as air is essential to fire, so is liberty to faction. The afore-mentioned methods will not work because it is not possible to destroy liberty because it is also essential to the political life of a nation and controlling the effect of faction through popular vote is only effective if the faction forms minority. Otherwise, a majority faction support has the conviction to advance their interests at the expense of public good and private rights of other people (Madison para.5).
d. Accordingly, Madison says that we should try to mediate the effects of faction. How does he propose to do so? (This question requires a quite detailed answer.)
Madison proposes mediation of the effects of the faction as the most effective way of controlling its danger. If the faction is made of minority representation, then it can be subjected to regular vote upon which the majority will defeat it. If it is made of majority, then the public good and private rights of the nationals are at threat and the effective way of controlling its effect is to consider the faction’s views in a democratic way and try to harmonize them with the minority federalist group so that what is reached is for the common good of all citizens.
Read the Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Virginia; June 26, 1788.
1.What power did the state of Virginia reserve to itself with this declaration?
The state of Virginia reserved to itself the power of non- compliance to the constitution in the event that it leads to injury and oppression of the people of Virginia. They also reserved the supremacy of their state constitution.
2. Thinking ahead in time, can you see this notion becoming a problem in American History?
The notion of the state of Virginia about the powers of the federal constitution would become a future problem if adopted wholly. This is emergent in the current issue of the federal constitution’s amendment. The amendment of the federal constitution requires the consent of all states in the union, and in the event of refusal of one state, the whole process is stalled. This has affected many states that feel oppressed in the union. For, instance, some states with more resources like California is taxed unwillingly for the survival of poor states with fewer resources like Arizona.
Forrest, McDonald, E. Pluribus Unum: The Formation of the American Republic, 1776-1790.
Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 1979. Print Madison, James. The Federalist No. 10: The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against
Domestic Faction and Insurrection (continued). Daily Advertiser. Thursday, November 22, 1787