A child needs stable family connections with the nurturing presence of their adults, which is their mother. Childhood is the most impersonating time of a person’s life which either makes or breaks a person. A mother is the direct source of influence and her ability to form a bond, provide paternal security and nurturing children’s needs by a constant guidance throughout. There are several factors, situations, condition and financial surrounding which help in influencing the children and generate long term benefits on upcoming generations.
Influences of Working Mothers on Children
During 1970-80s, the rate of working mothers was less as compare to today. Based on color, black mothers working women were more common and children were kept in day care centers in western countries, whereas in other countries it was different. The need of day care was at peak during world wars and was less in days. Statistics showed, younger children used to have less working mothers because it was believed that initial years require maternal care more and nothing can replace it (Grossman n.d.).
Today about three quarters of mothers are working with their children at day cares. About 41 percent people, still do not favor the situation, 22 percent take the situational side based upon Pew Research center. We can find evidence in favor of working mothers cases with certain spending time trade-offs. On a long term approach, a study based on 50,000 adults showed an improved educational status of daughters with working mothers with a higher income job landing which was opposite in sons. Working mothers sons are reported to spend time more on housework as compare to establishing professional lives (Miller 2015). Based on 69 studies and 2010 meta-analysis, working women children lacked major learning, had behavioral issues, increased anxiety and depression. A positive set of effects was observed in children from lower or middle class families. The meta-analysis also showed that the effects depend upon factors like timing hours, working surrounding, family support and not just the concept of working mother. It also depended upon the age groupings (Thompson, Goldberg, Prause 2010). Research showed that in United States, the family circumstances developed positive or negative impacts on children’s growth (Miller 2015).
The National Institute of Child Health and Development drew some conclusions from their recent findings regarding children’s development. Early age full time maternal employment shows a higher level of behavioral problems in a child during his initial schooling. Part-time working mothers had fewer problem. The problem rose due to mother’s sensitivity and maintenance of quality of home environment. The studies were done according to middle and upper class standards as well and it was found that full time working women are able to provide better quality time and care without any personal anxieties negatively affecting children to a low level. It was due to the financial security. Working mothers have a greater later negative impact during infant time as compare to the pre-school time duration (Pelcovitz 2013).
In 2002, an investigation was conducted upon the effects of child cognitive development due to maternal labor. It was observed that the first three years of a child’s life strengthen his verbal and communicational activities whereas the mathematical approach during 5 to 6 years. It was observed in a small two member family a working mother has a negative impact on the emotional security, self-esteem and learning skills of children (Ruhm n.d.).
There is another important factor which is present in working and non-working mothers both. In both situations, they come across with pressure, either due to domestic or professional pressure. Both of them suffer from chronic stress resulting in the hyper-vigilant behavior towards their children; lack of focus on improved performance of their child; to power repair, they derogate children and misread many neutral cues while focusing on punitive parenting (Pelcovitz 2013).
Influences of Stay-At-Home Mothers on Children 450
A mother has the most profound impact on a child and her presence timing has an adverse effect in different situations and ages. A proper family time and bonding between a mother and child is necessary, which in the case of working women varies every day. Depending upon the work stress, a mother may not be able to spend focused time and attention on her children daily. Lack of interest and time apart from the buffering impact of mothers due to unsatisfactory feelings can also increase the stress level. A home-based mother is free from professional work stress, mental health contributes to child’s development positively (Heinrich n.d.).
A full-time house wife or a stay-at-home mother has always been considered as a perfect role model for children while raising up a family. She is present to take care of them 24/7 and look after the emotional needs of a child. The most sensitive years of a child’s life are the first few years in which presence of a mother have long term benefits. Working women and parents on the other hand, face problem on a long run while raising up their children. The vision about the impact on older children is not clear. A recent study at Stanford Graduate School of Education has presented several benefits coming from stay-at-home mother on older children. The results of older children were observed with working mothers or parents and a bump in grades was observed showing the deep impact of mother’s presence and guidance even in older high school ages. The only difference observed was in lower class families where the money from working women’s job is more important than the presence of mother herself (Andrews 2014).
There are certain negative impact of stay-at-home mothers too. A women with an unhappy personal life may not cater the needs of her children fully. Sometimes, the round the clock efforts of a mother is not acknowledged and taken by granted by a child if a mother fails to deliver it (Andrews 2014).
The paper findings of various factors influencing the childhood growth through the work status of mothers. Both situations have their pros and cons. For instance, the effects of mother employment depends upon various factors such as technology, backup arrangement and mainly societal and cultural values. For example, European countries prioritize child care on top of public education and mothers are trained accordingly to promote cognitive development of a child. Similarly, it is not dependent upon working status but the societal norms which affect the child’s development or the family surrounding. If we summarize the points observed from the empirical studies based upon the impacts of maternal employment, we will see that numerous variables affect child’s adjustments. It depends upon financial status of a family. A stay-at-home mother cannot keep her child happy due to lack of finances to fulfill the basic needs and in that situation she can only exemplify being an ideal mother by leaving her child in order to work and share finances with her husband. In middle or upper class family, the situations are opposite, but there even, a stay-at-home mother faces depression due to lack of social interactions while staying at home; resulting in unbalanced child-care. Furthermore, a majority of families stay content and satisfied by a full time motherhood. Present era, is brining evolution towards this concept gradually. The quality matters more than the quantity and if a mother is able to balance work and home together without stressing under both situations then children can have a healthy base. The day care centers and other facilities are increasing day by day to improve the standards of living to assess a stay-at-home mother. There is no particular guarantee of happiness in either situations. A working or Stay-at-home mother both can equally grow up a healthy family depending upon her financial status, family support and several other such factors.
Pelcovitz, David. "The Impact of Working Mothers on Child Development | Everyday Jewish Living | OU Life." OU Life. 03 Jan. 2013. Web. 18 Apr. 2016. <https://www.ou.org/life/parenting/impact-working-mothers-child-development empirical-research-david-pelcovitz/>
Miller, Claire Cain. "Mounting Evidence of Advantages for Children of Working Mothers." The New York Times. The New York Times, 2015. Web. 18 Apr. 2016. <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/17/upshot/mounting-evidence-of-some-advantages for-children-of-working-mothers.html?_r=0>.
Andrews, Edmund L. "Eric Bettinger: Why Stay-at-Home Parents Are Good for Older Children." Stanford Graduate School of Business. 20 Oct. 2014. Web. 18 Apr. 2016. <https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/insights/eric-bettinger-why-stay-home-parents-are-good older-children>.
Heinrich, Carolyn J. "Parents’(Employment(and(Children’s( Wellbeing(." Princeton.edu. Web. 18 Apr. 2016. <https://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/24_01_06.pdf>.
Grossman, Allyson Sherman. "Special Labor Force Reports-Summaries." Web. 18 Apr. 2016. <http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1981/05/rpt3full.pdf>.
"Working Mom vs Stay-At-Home Mom: What's Best for Kids?" Secureteen.com. 12 Nov. 2013. Web. 18 Apr. 2016. <http://www.secureteen.com/working-mom/working-mom-vs-stay at-home-mom-what’s-best-for-kids/>.
Ruhm, Christopher J. "Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development." Iza.org. Apr. 2002. Web. 18 Apr. 2016. <http://www.iza.org/en/papers/iza_cim_ruhm_parent.pdf>.
Thompson, Rachel Lucas, Wendy A. Goldberg, and JoAnn Prause. "Maternal Work Early in the Lives of Children and Its Distal Associations With Achievement and Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis." Psychological Bulletin (2010). Web. 18 Apr. 2016. <http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/bul-136-6 915.pdfhttp://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/bul-136-6-915.pdf>.