Globalization is an integration process that occurs across the world and arises from interchange of products, world views, ideas and cultural aspects. The act of globalization can be traced from the old ages to present modern world (Stromquist M. P 2009). It begun with investments, trade, migration and dissemination of knowledge and was further linked with global climatic challenges, cross boundary pollution and sharing of socio-economic resources. Location of globalization begins at the local, national then regional continuum with economic and social relations organized at all stated levels. Modern forms of globalization can be said to have begun during the industrial revolution which allowed standardization of production globally and are present to date. This paper studies an in depth effects of globalization socially, politically, economically and in other aspects. It will further explain the effects both positively and negatively.
Globalization comes about with widespread effects that can both be considered good and bad depending with their gains and losses. The largest impacts are actually felt on the developing countries especially in the industrial and financial globalization. An easy access to new markets is amongst the positive effects of globalization and it includes more free trade between countries. Increased access to markets is much felt in developing nations whereby there exists homegrown industries. These industries reduce trade barriers and encourage access to international markets on a wider perception. This is an advantage because easy market accessibility allows organizations and companies to move to technological advancement which in turn increase the quantity and quality of goods and services production.
Competition increases day by day between companies calling for improved productivity. For organizations to survive in the global market there must be serious competition that makes the markets worldwide. Competition calls for companies and various industries to consider an upgrade of their products and adopt or increase the use of technology skills that would help in facing the competitive opponents. Improved productivity in the global market is an advantage to consumers, nations and the producers.
In the global market different people are exposed to cultural contacts from all corners of the world. This is a cultural growth activity because there is an advent of new identities, categories and consciousness encouraging a diffusion of several cultures. Cultural growth is a positive impact of globalization and in the world of culture there is always a desire of new things that one has not experienced. Such desires include enjoying of foreign ideas and products, a change in one’s living standard, adoption of new practices and technology and participation in a cultural world. Exchanges and increase in cultural values also boost an understanding among individuals.
Increased migration has involved greater travels to more places globally. It eases the movement of people, goods and services to any desired destination making the world a global village where all needs can be met despite the location of someone. Easier migration has been linked with an increase in travels and tourism activities which are a source of income to many nations and an economic growth activity. Moving from one place to the other is fun to most people who like travelling and even if not to others, consumer products spread from local levels to global levels encouraging an equality in consuming what is available in all corners of the world.
Multinational corporations are important for helping other industries whether locally or globally and have been incorporated into the media. As a positive effect of globalization, incorporation of these bodies has evolved proper sponsorship activities encouraging a smooth global interaction and operation of industries and states. An example of this is the Adidas sponsorship for the All- Blacks rugby team whereby it has created a parallel website containing an interactive rugby game that can be downloaded by its fans to compete and play. Other multinational corporations also exist and are important for a global relationship and help industries, ministries and individuals develop.
Increased development of infrastructure is an admirable positive effect of globalization. Hotels, resorts, roads, airways, communication satellites and railways are good infrastructure that is required in a global world among others. Globalization views the whole world as a small village that has free and easy movement to anywhere at any moment and use of any available resource despite its location in relation to a person’s origin. For humans to operate in such a wide region there is a need for adequate infrastructural development that would support these activities and thus there has been a rapid growth in the global infrastructure.
Development of international legal standards in production, distribution and consumption of goods and services has been an achievement of globalization. Such standards include world trade agreements and copyright laws that help in regulation of the universal exchange and movement. Legally, there has developed an international criminal court, global administrative laws and international justice movements. All these make the world on and any issues can be handled at an international level since there are some countries that are not yet developed and need support from other nations in handling their issues and policies.
Informational increase is a product of free flow of information across borders whether locally, nationally or internationally. In the global world, people are very much informed since there is exchange of information in a wide region incorporating everyone universally. An increase in the flow of information normally occurs geographically and covers an extreme location ranging from remote to established regions. Informational exchange can be linked to technology whereby presently there is the fiber optic communication, telephones, satellites and the internet. Easy communication exchanges ideas and lead to good development thus globalization has an advantage by developing and increasing communication.
Besides all these positive effects that come along with globalization, there exist shortcomings associated with it. Increased living standards is an economic impact of globalization considered negative because of increased lending that does not benefit many citizens in various nations. Governments especially those of the third world countries and are still developing have their access to lending money from foreighn countries. These funds are later used selectively especially in corrupt countries and only the highly ranked benefit from it making the lives of the rest harder and increasing their taxes to collect revenue for payment of debts. Further, funds that are lend are used in developmental issues like improvement of infrastructure including healthcare, social services, education and roads increasing the living standards of the locals by charging of the services and increasing prices of commodities.
Wage gaps are common among people of different classes for instance the educated and the uneducated. Globalization has led to a wide disparity in incomes of individuals by allowing an influx of foreign capital and companies in many nations. These foreign activities come with foreign employees creating an overall lack of employment for the locals in countries thus increasing poverty and widening the wage gap between those who are employed and the unemployed. Also, the foreign companies tend to employ trained workers rendering the untrained jobless and it still increases the wage gap amongst individuals. In activities of elevating living standards, there normally comes in a gap between the rich and the poor whereby the short term policies only favor the known and as the rich get richer, the poor become poorer.
Decreased unemployment is another negative impact of globalization and is mainly caused by the influx of foreign investors into other countries. These companies are a source of employment but not to all since they desire skilled workers which may just be a fraction of a country’s population. Increase in technological advancements further comes with a need for new businesses and further spreads the advanced skills to local companies. The need for unskilled labor decreases and in some countries the unskilled become useless to the economy thus are not employed and this increases the rate of unemployment in these countries. Lack of adequate infrastructure to help train the unskilled to match the global class may lead to a further strain of the social services as it will need to care for the unskilled and the underclass.
Globalization comes in hand with environmental degradation and climate change (Hannum et al 2010). This is true and is referred to as a negative effect because the ecological composition of the earth is interfered with. Many industries and factories are based in developing countries since the third world mostly involve in production as compared to the developed. These third world countries lack proper environmental regulations that would ensure the industrial activities do not pollute the environment. Also, developing countries try to produce as much as possible to increase their livelihood and develop their economy. These industries produce a lot of substances that cause pollution and wastes that are either discharged into the air, the ground and water bodies.
Cultural erosion and assimilation into foreign cultures is not good and as an effect of globalization, it is considered negative. In the global world people interact all over an across many nations thus they meet and learn many cultures no familiar with them. Some cultures are not good as compared to others depending with the laws and beliefs of a person. Exchange of different cultures is good and recommendable whereas the adoption of another culture and forgetting our own is wrong since we should be proud of our origins. People who drop their cultures to have new ones are advised to be multicultural by adopting new cultures but retaining their original ones to avoid eroding of cultures since cultural identity is also an important aspect of life. When globalization causes a culture to erode, many communities get displaced and beliefs and practices that have existed since origin are ignored which is wrong. Some of these cultures that people forget are a source of tourist attractions which earn income and identity and when they are ignored the tourists too cease to visit such areas.
Illegal migration to foreign countries and terrorism can also be said to be a negative effect of globalization. Free movements allow people to go anywhere they want increasing rates of illegal citizens in countries and poor identification of people since everyone can be anywhere. Further, terrorists have found a way to move to wherever they want and they have also become global terrorists.
In concluding, globalization has promoted emergence of international networks which have their benefits and side effects. The benefits of globalization are more and profitable as compared to the losses which can be managed and thus it is more important to be in a global world than local. Globalization entails a holistic human experience involving an international lifestyle which is easily adopted by many people and in the global world there exist many sectors all needed for human development. Issues that affect the whole universe can also be solved such as human rights issues, environmental conservation and security. A proper management of the global systems will lead to a better global world.
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