It is important to observe the times when allegations of witchcraft happened to understand the stories of the Salem witch trials.
In January of year 1692 in Salem Village, Reverend Samuel Parris’ daughter and niece became ill. When they did not get well, William Griggs, who is the village doctor, was called. Griggs’ findings of bewitchment caused the power that would eventually become grounds for death punishment by hanging of nineteen women and men. Aside from that, a man was then crushed to death, and seven other men died while in prison, and the lives of many people were changed.
The special Court of Oyer, which means to hear, and Terminer, which means to decide took charge in Salem to attend to the cases of witchcraft in June of year 1692. The court consists of judges and jurors, and was headed by William Stoughton, who was the Chief Justice. Bridget Bishop was the first person to be persecuted. Bishop was found guilty, and on June 10 she was hanged. After this incident, several hangings of many people followed, and they were all found guilty of witchcraft. The hangings lasted for three days. In October of the same year, Governor William Phipps finally disbanded the court. The Judicature of the Superior Court was formed to replace the Court of Oyer and Terminer. This court did not allow phantom evidence. This conviction in the power of the prosecuted to practice their unseen shapes or practices to torment their victims had conserved the chances of those who became prosecuted by the Court of Oyer and Terminer. The new court discharged those pending trials and pardoned those pending execution, and had ended the Salem witch trials.
The best way to avoid being executed for witchcraft is to eliminate the beliefs in the devil and factions, as well as the practice of witchcraft. There should be a strong and factual evidence to base on when executing someone and should not base the trial on ghostly evidence (salemwitchmuseum.com).
The Development of Steam Engine
The development of Steam Engine is certainly the most important step in technology in a human history. The steam engine helped mechanical power to be formed to a degree immensely larger than the traditional ways of man, wind, beast, power of water.
A device that allows the transformation of heat to mechanical power is called the heat engine. This method is a matter of thermodynamics, a method that was developed to explain how engines function and the restrictions that exist parallel to the amount of power made accessible by given equipment.
The development of the steam engine began with the observation, which is when water is boiled and heated in a closed container, the pressure in the container rises. Then, people thought that if the bottom of the container is built into a moving piston, mechanical task could be done by equipment parallel to a moving piston. The first types of steam engines are built by the process of producing a low pressure on one end of the piston by compressing steam that had filled the capacity on the low-pressure end of the piston cell.
As the development of the steam engine continues, Thomas Savery developed an atmospheric engine that used the low pressure created by condensing steam to create mechanical work. The Savery engine had been operated to remove water from mines. This engine was operated with the use of atmospheric pressure.
The final developments and improvements of the steam engine were completed by Thomas Newcomen. Newcomen brought all the very important elements of the steam engine together in one successful combination – the cylinder, the piston, and a separate boiler. Newcomen’s idea was superior and possessed all the essential features of machines that were made further than a century later, but his engine had a lot of flaws and was inefficient. Newcomen’s engine was expensive to operate, but still, it was operated at a coal mine at Staffordshire’s Dudley Castle in 1712.
After several years, James Watt made the most important development to the atmospheric steam engine, which was the operation of a separate condenser. Watt was also a businessman, so he was able to reduce the cost of the operation and built a factory with the help of his financier, Matthew Boulton. This factory raised and manufactured over five hundred steam engines from year 1774 to 1800 (himedo.net).
Winston Churchill and Mikhail Gorbachev’s Speech
Mikhail Gorbachev added an appendix of global reconciliation to Winston Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech forty-six years ago but pointedly argued that United States of America was the initiator of the race of the nuclear arms.
In Westminster College, the view of Churchill’s warning about Soviet development, which was the former Soviet head accepted that the Kremlin did a major error by thinking that the defeat of bureaucracy in World War II would create an inevitable victory of Communism.
Churchill argued that other Western nations and the United States erred critically in failing to understand that Stalin and the Soviet citizens were too weak from the war to take part in the military attack against the West.
Gorbachev said that people are releasing a monstrous race of arms by carrying the nuclear element in world politics, and the United Sates was the initiator swhile the West exceeded their defense sufficiency. Gorbachev also said that this was a historic error.
Gorbachev’s speech is about looking forward to a better world enhanced by his prescriptions for a tougher United Nations. Gorbachev stood in the sunshine in Missouri to announce an end to Churchill’s distress, and to advocate a deeply strengthened United Nations to manage the complicated past of the Soviet world (nytimes.com).
Clines, Francis X. "At Site of 'Iron Curtain' Speech, Gorbachev Buries the Cold War - New York Times." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. The New York Times, 7 May 1992. Web. 1 Oct. 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/1992/05/07/world/at-site-of-iron-curtain-speech-gorbachev-buries-the-cold-war.html>.
"Development of the Steam Engine." High Meadow, Jackson New Hampshire. N.p., Jan. 2011. Web. 1 Oct. 2014. <http://himedo.net/TheHopkinThomasProject/TimeLine/Wales/Steam/SteamEngineDevelopment/SteamEngineDevelopment.htm>.
Salem Witch Museum. "Salem Witch Museum - Salem, Massachusetts." Salem Witch Museum - Salem, Massachusetts. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Oct. 2014. <http://salemwitchmuseum.com/education/index.php>.