This paper provides an overview and description of the opportunities and challenges of the advent of the 5G network in the United States and the whole world. In addition, it gives supporting information about sectors that will gain from the introduction of 5G technology and the complications that may arise in its introduction and usage across the United States and other countries. Ideally, different opportunities like home and industry automation, provision of employment, and boosting of the U.S. economy and the world's economy as a result of 5G technology have been discussed and additional insights brought along with 5G in its implementation and effectiveness: spectrum, security, and regulations provided. The general finding is that although 5G technology comes with several opportunities that we may take advantage of, it also comes with several challenges that require careful consideration and evaluation to come up with the best solutions possible.
With the growing advancements in technology, different technological innovations have been invented all over different sectors in the technological world. One of these inventions is the fifth generation technology (5G). The 5G technology is expected to help improve the technological world in many diverse areas and sectors. Therefore, the recent advent of 5G technology brings several opportunities in different industrial sectors in the United States. However, apart from the opportunities the technology presents, it also comes with its shortcomings and challenges.
One of the 5G technology opportunities is improved home automation and the Internet of Things (IoT). Because of the incredible speeds that 5G technology offers, various home appliances such as home appliances and wearable devices can effectively use the technology in faster communication. This because of the decrease in latency that 5G offers from 100millisecomds to 1 millisecond allowing networked devices to communicate with each other without any delays, to the point of being almost indistinguishable from real-time. Additionally, users of these devices will control the appliances and monitor them closely despite physical distance. Thus, 5G technology allows for the implementation and improvements in home automation and the Internet of Things and exploits more opportunities that the Internet of Things may offer (Shim et al., 2020).
Besides, the 5G technology offers an opportunity to improve the network operators as it enables network slicing. The same physical infrastructure can host several logical networks. Network slicing, therefore, allows for the flexible delivery of service by network providers. It allows network operators to create and deploy customized slices of network infrastructure depending on every customer's specific needs. Download speeds, latency, and limits on download usage can be provided by the network operators on the same physical network and satisfy specific customer needs.
Moreover, 5G technology will also help in the improvement of industrial automation. There are so many different types of industries and factories in the United States and the world. Technological advancements in industries all over call for improvements in every industrial sector for effective production and revenue-generating. 5Gallows for the efficient control of machines and enables one to have adequate supply chain management through the use of technology. Incorporating this technology in production and supply chain management improves the chances of ensuring efficient production and helps provide significant economic benefits to the United States and elsewhere (Ilderem, 2020).
According to a report by Accenture (2021), the introduction of 5G technology will drive up the economy of the United States by up to 2.7 trillion dollars in additional gross output growth between 2021 up to 2025. Additionally, the report states that 5G will enable up to 1.5 trillion U.S. dollars into the country's GDP within the same period. Apart from that, the technology also promises to create and transform more than a 16milluon new jobs across the country in all the economic sectors. These jobs created will have a multiplier effect in every industry. In an industry like ICT, every job created by 5G can create an additional 1.8 new jobs throughout the economy. It, therefore, indicates that 5G technology will play a vital role in the growth of our economy and reduce unemployment rates in the country (Accenture. 2021).
Although 5G technology comes with many opportunities, several challenges may come along with it. These challenges may be in implementing the technology or may be brought about by the technology itself. For example, one of the challenges of 5G technology is spectrum management. The combination discusses low frequencies, less than 1GHz, medium frequencies, 1GHz to 10GHz, and high frequencies, above 10GHz. It entails the required specifications for effective delivery. It entails speed, coverage, and capacity of 5G technology pose a significant problem challenge in its implementation. This because for 5G to be facilitated, there need to be several vacant spectra. Therefore, companies are required to increase the number of their base stations and attain licenses to extend their 5G into lower frequencies. Therefore, this may lose as a stumbling block affecting the smooth implementation of the technology (Huang et al., 2020).
Security also poses another challenge for the 5G technology. Because the technology allows for the connectivity of many devices to the intended and with each other, security will become a big issue to deal with. The availability of millions of users’ data online poses a security risk as it increases the likelihood of cyber-attacks and manipulation. Proper data encryption methods are therefore required before implementing this technology, especially in D2D communications. It will help safeguard data privacy and also reduce the chances of data theft.
Another challenge that may affect the 5G technology is government regulations and policies. With the diverse use-case that comes with 5G technology, there will be the need to incorporate specific policies that would control the utilization of spectrum and the interaction between different sectors.
The advent of 5G technology has come with several advantages and opportunities in today's environment. With improvements in the home and industry sectors also brings an opportunity for the country's economy and the world's economy at large. However, despite these great opportunities it comes with, 5G technology also poses several challenges that may affect its implementation and effectiveness. For example, spectrum management and security are two vital challenges that need to be addressed to implement the technology effectively. More research should therefore engage done to devise ways of avoiding and dealing with these challenges.
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Accenture. (2021), The Impact of 5G on the United States Economy, Accenture, accessed at https://www.accenture.com/_acnmedia/PDF-146/Accenture-5G-WP-US.pdf#zoom=50
Huang, S., Guo, B., & Liu, Y. (2020). 5G-Oriented optical underlay network slicing technology
And challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 58(2), 13-19.
Ilderem, V. (2020). The technology underpinning 5G. Nature Electronics, 3(1), 5-6.
Shim, J. P., Dam, R. V. D., Aiello, S., Penttinen, J., Sharda, R., & French, A. (2020). 5G
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