The above journal article as done by Kay Peggs explores the pertinent issues regarding animal testing paying attention to the European community. Peggs reviews the moral issues, economic implications and scientific importance of nonhuman animal testing vis-à-vis a directive by the European Community endorsed in the year 2008. Peggs first appreciates that nonhuman animal testing has been the main methodology that scientists around the world use in performing scientific research. Further, the author argues that the European Community has had divergent rules and legislation with regard to animal testing. However, nearly all member states have a deep concern for animal welfare. Therefore in addressing animal welfare issues and corresponding moral concepts, the European Community endorsed a directive on animal testing. Peggs objective in writing the journal is so as to review the critical rational choice theory in order to appreciate the motivations behind the November 2008 directive. The research argues that social theories based on human values were the main drivers at arriving at the directive and is mainly veered towards animal welfare. However, the concept of human divine power over animals and the self-interest of “human health” still allows nonhuman animal testing to persist.
Hill, W. (2011). Can more be learned from selection experiments of value in animal breeding programmes? Or is it time for an obituary? Journal of Animal Breeding Genetics 128 (2011), 87-94.
The second source that will be used in the main research is a journal article by Hill as indicated above. The article mainly reviews selection experiments in animal breeding. Hill argues that selection laboratory breeding has been explored in the past in seeking to attain some particular desirable genetic traits. Such experiments then point to a theoretical evaluation that, based on the statically evaluated success of animal selection breeding experiments, genetic architecture can be defined in biological terms. Such theoretical knowledge of genetic constructs can be explored for human health studies. This journal article explores whether any additional knowledge can be obtained from selection animal experiments.
Passantino, A. (2008, October 20). Application of the 3Rs Principles for Animals Used for Experiments at the Beginning of the 21st Century. ARBS Annual Review of Biomedical Sciences, pp. T27-T32.
Passantino also explores the concepts of animal testing vis-à-vis the European Directive of 1986 and the technological progress made in the 21st century. The author first appreciates that the European community had, in its 1986 directive, made progress towards limiting the use of animal experimentation as well as improving the welfare of the animals. However, with immense technological advances in the 21st century, Passantino proposes radical changes in animal experimentations. These changes should be guided by the three R’s rule. The three R’s rule stand for replacement, reduction and refinement. Replacing advocates for doing away with live animal testing and relying on technology to apply simulated testing. Either, if not all experiments can replace animal testing, therefore scientists should reduce animal testing as much as possible. And finally, procedures regarding animal testing should be refined in order to minimize animal suffering. These should be implemented in legislations.
Hill, W. (2011). Can more be learned from selection experiments of value in animal breeding programmes? Or is it time for an obituary? Journal of Animal Breeding Genetics 128 (2011) , 87-94.
Passantino, A. (2008, October 20). Application of the 3Rs Principles for Animals Used for Experiments at the Beginning of the 21st Century. ARBS Annual Review of Biomedical Sciences , pp. T27-T32.
Peggs, K. (2010). Nonhuman Animal Experiments in the European Community: Human Values and Rational Choice. Journal of Society and Animals 18 (2010) , 1-20.