Just to begin with, it is prudent to note that twelve years later from the time Bin laden attacked the United States of America; most people still wonder how such attack could have happened in the most powerful soil of America. Some individuals also still ask themselves whether the terrorist attack could have been preventable. However, as per now, many people have full information about the errors that the Americans did which made the attack possible. The book Provides new light to the historical decisions which has profound effects on the current events. This paper therefore shall provide a critical and comprehensive review of the book mentioned above.
It is important to note that the story inside this book provides an enticing look back on the Afghanistan-American politics beginning from the soviet –Afghanistan war to September 10 the year 2001 and the commencing of the war of terror. The book sifts out some of the most complex diplomatic and military involvement the United States of America has experienced. The book also analyzes the intricate relationship that formed between the U.S and the Afghanistan prior to the 9/11 knowledge that all the policy makers and the government employees are required to possess.
The entire book has three parts; the first part deals with the war between the Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. This took place between 1979 to February 1989. The second part of the book explores the war between the Soviet Union and the Afghanistan. The third part of the book covers the story about the CIA, s efforts to capture Osama Bin Laden.
One of the fundamental goals according to Coli that the groups had in common was rid Afghanistan of the soviet occupations together with the Soviet formed Afghani stan government. The U.S wanted to remain a neutral player in this war in order to avoid weakening its relationship with the Soviet Union which could results to conflicts and eventually war.
Since the United States wanted to remain an invisible player in the war, much of the responsibilities were handed over to Pakistan. The United States of America could channel their support through the Pakistan’s interservice intelligence. This enabled the Pakistan intelligence interservice intelligence an opportunity to run the war as it wished and also to favour factions which in the long-run would support Pakistan’s best interest.
However, in the year 1988, the Soviet Union made their mind that the Afghanistan had just became a liability and therefore it was not worth the efforts, forces as well as money to sustain the Afghanistan occupation. Just immediately the soviet left the Afghanistan, the Americans started to gain interest in the Afghanistan. The Geneva accord marked the formal withdrawal of the soviets and the new formula known as the positive symmetry was developed by the Americans and the soviet. The positive symmetry was created so that the two powerful nations could retain a balanced of power in the region.
This implied that though the soviet union withdraw his/her troops out of the Afghanistan, the country still had a communist government since they were still allowed to support the communist who were still residing in Afghanistan while the U.S was allowed to provide freedom fighters. It is prudent to note that little emphasis was put in building the Afghanistan nation.
The second part of this history book mainly focuses on the war which existed between the Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. It looks at the circumstances and the events behind the war and how such a war was facilitated. This war led to the removal of the communist-denominated government by the CIA and the ISL. Both of the intelligence organizations mentioned above had supported the Afghanistan faction may be providing them with cash, weapons and training in order to fight the communist-government. According to Coli, many of the proxies that had been used to fight the communist the CIA ns the ISI battle in the Afghanistan were the Islamic fundamentalists who used often the terrorist tactics in order to achieve their goals.
The fundamentalists which was being headed by Hekmatyar and funded by the late Osama bin laden had no doubt concerning the changing nature of the suicidal attacks which left many people dead and many children orphaned. According to Coli, this group that called themselves the fundamentalist and which was being funded by Osama proved to be one of the groups that was highly determined when it comes to war. It was during this period that Bin Laden established a training camp for the Arab volunteers. According to Coli, Najibullah who is one of the characters in the book point out that emergence of the fundamentalists would turn Afghanistan into a state of terrorisms.
According to Coli after the cold war ended, the U.S intelligence community labelled the situation in Afghanistan as a civil war and maintained a significant distance from the conflict. In the year 1990s, a global terrorist system began to emerge. Both the FBI and the CIA produced reports which indicated that Afghanistan was a safe haven for the extremists because of the availability of ample funding, training as well as wide support for the jihadists. Despite the fact that the intelligence estimate did not mention the name of The Osama Bin Laden, they warn of a possible terrorist attack on a U.S asset.
In the year 1995, the Taliban group evolved into political-military movement which had national goals. In an attempt by the CIA unit to investigate the terrorist attack plans and to follow up the activities of Osama Bin Laden. On the other hand, Osama set up a permanent residence in the safe havens of Afghanistan and then offer full-fledged support to the Taliban group. These Taliban forces became the dominant forces in Kabul hence the sharia became the law governing the land.
The final section of this book covers the time period of January 1998b to September 10th 2001. After several attempt by the CIA to capture and indict Osama, Bin Laden foiled. Bin laden unveiled the international Islamic front for the Jihad against the Jews on February 1998. This manifesto was signed from military leaders from Pakistan, Egypt, and Kashmir, Bangladesh among others. It was during this time that the United States realised that Laden’s main agenda was an Islamic jihad posed against the United States of America and its allies. Laden offered and funded military training.
The first act of terrorism was after the Osama’s manifesto was the United States embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya on august 7th 1998. After the bombings, the collected evidenced revealed that Osama Bin Laden was behind the bombings. Bin Laden had just commenced his terrorist’s attacks on the United States and his allies
The next act of terrorism was therefore in Aden, Yemen on October twelve 2000. In the year 2001, the security intelligence unit had reported several things about him. The AL Qaeda was about to make another attack. The CIA and operatives revealed that the key operatives f such as the guns.
In conclusion it is important to note that the story inside this book provides an enticing look back on the Afghanistan-American politics beginning from the soviet –Afghanistan war to September 10 the year 2001 and the commencing of the war of terror. The book sifts out some of the most complex diplomatic and military involvement the United States of America has experienced. The book also analyzes the intricate relationship that formed between the U.S and the Afghanistan prior to the 9/11 knowledge that all the policy makers and the government employees are required to possess.
Coll, Steve, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden, From the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 (New York, New York: The Penguin Press, 2005), pp. 712.