The Intervertebral Disc Disease
The intervertebral disc disease is a condition that involves herniation, deterioration and intervertebral disc dysfunction. The condition is common among the aging group. As a person is aging, the nucleus pulposus gradually dehydrate, and this limits its ability to transfer and uniformly distribute the loads inter-vertabrally. Instead, the loads are transferred non-uniformly via the annulus fibrosus as it undergoes a progressive structural degeneration (Shankar, 2009). This condition gradually manifests itself in the form of pain as one is carrying a heavy load. However, the severity of the condition varies from one individual to the other. Disc degeneration has become a relatively common concern among the aging group. Statistical records have indicated that the prevalence of the condition in the UK stands in between 12-35 percent depending on the age bracket (Shankar, 2009).
Diagnosis of Intervertebral Disc Disease
The clinical presentation of the intervertebral disc degeneration can greatly provide the necessary information required for effective diagnosis. The major notable clinical conditions of the disease have been regionally categorized. Therefore, the terms like cervical, lumbar and thoracic syndrome are precisely used to convey information about the region of pathogenesis. In other words, these can be termed as the regions within the vertebral column that have been affected. Local lumbar syndrome is majorly characterized by sharp pain that’s confined near the midline of the lumbar region. This condition arises as a result of degeneration of the lumbar spine. It characterizes all the disk related complaints that affect the lumbar region of the spinal cord. Such are not normally accompanied by the radicular irritating instances. Lumbar symptoms can either be chronic or acute. The term lumbago has been used to refer to the acute form of the condition, which is normally characterized by severe and acute pain exacerbated by the motion. Secondly, the patient loses stability following the loss of the disc turgor (Gambacciani et al, 2007).
In most cases, the patient will be in a stooped or staggering state. It’s common for the infected disc to tightly press against the nerves of the CNS, causing numbness, diminished strength, a radiating pain and irregular motion. Additionally, the contact of the interior nuclear gel within the nerve results into a succession of sharp pains, a clinical term called the radicular pain. Simple back pain is usually induced mechanically and lasts for a very short time. Complicated back pains, on the other hand, have common features although they last for a longer period, accompanied by predisposing factors of chronic pain. For the complicated pain, we interact with terms such as specific and non-specific back pains (Gambacciani et al, 2007).
MSD, as it is commonly known, is an injury or pain on the body muscles, joints, ligaments, tendons, nerves and other structures that support the neck, back and limbs. They are degenerative diseases that impair the normal operation of the body. They mostly affect the skeletal muscles of the body. These conditions are increasingly becoming a global health concern because they are among the leading causes of disability across all ages (Gambacciani et al, 2007). The main cause of MSD has been cited as work-related. Statistically, about 90% of the cases of MSD come about as a result of work related activities and exposures, construction industry being at the forefront. Other causes of the condition can be broadly classified as either Psychological, social and economic. Gender, however, is a critical factor of concern, as MSD is more prevalent among women than men. Additionally, obesity also plays another role as most overweight individuals are prone to MSD, especially of the lower back (Holland and Burström et al, 2006).
There are often no cases of visible injuries and signs with MSDs since they majorly involve the soft tissues. Assessment, therefore, are based majorly on the reports given by individuals on how they are feeling. One of the popular measures of MSD is through use of the Nordic Questionnaire, which is simply a picture of the body parts and its labels. The physician assesses the state of the body bit by bit with reference to the picture. Persons with such conditions will occasionally complain of the general body ache, muscle burns and muscle aches among others. However, sleep disturbance and fatigue vary from one individual to the other (Prior and Kadam, 2011).
Treatment Approach for Intervertebral Disease and MSD
There are different types of therapy for the aforementioned conditions that depend on the type and severity of the condition. A number of these therapies can be applied in the treatment of one or both cases. For acute cases of MSDs and IVDs, these techniques have been scientifically proven to speed up the recovery process (Prior & Kadam, 2011). Medications such as acetaminophen, anti-inflammatories or opioids have been occasionally used in the correction of such disorders. In patients with conditions such as fibromyalgia, the best medication would be increasing the serotonin levels in the body as well as norepinephrine (Holland et al, 2006). However, the prescription of these drugs should be done by a professional physician due to the detrimental actions of these drugs upon overdose. Other treatments methods would include exercise, osteopathic manipulation and injection with anesthetic medications on the infected sites.
Gambacciani, M., Pepe, A., Cappagli, B., Palmieri, E., & Genazzani, A. R. (2007). The relative contributions of menopause and aging to postmenopausal reduction in intervertebral disk height. Climacteric, 10(4), 298-305. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/198648354?accountid=1611
Holland, P., Burström, B., Möller, I., & Whitehead, M. (2006). Gender and socio-economic variations in employment among patients with a diagnosed musculoskeletal disorder: A longitudinal record linkage study in sweden. Rheumatology, 45(8), 1016. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/195676995?accountid=1611
Prior, J. A., & Kadam, U. T. (2011). Cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disorder labels in family practice acted as markers of physical health severity. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 64(5), 547-55. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2010.06.002
Shankar (2009). Intervertebral disk diseases; causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis, 3d ed. Scitech Book News, 33 Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/200127207?accountid=1611