Erving Hoffman (1922-1982) embodied in the sociological theory of Shakespeare's verse:
"All the world's a stage,And all the men and women merely players:They have their exits and their entrances;And one man in his time plays many parts" (Shakespeare)
Socio dramatic approach is a version of symbolic interactionism. E. Hoffman understood social "I" as the property is not an actor, but as the product of theatrical interaction between performers and audience. As well as in the theater, in the social life are important suits in which we play a role, scene props, scenery. However, the main role, of course belongs to our partners on the stage and the audience. When individuals interact, they want to portray a certain understanding of the "I ", which will be accepted by the other. However, they realize that part of the audience or bad partners can disrupt performance. Social situations is the drama in miniature, the course of action, which people tend to create a certain impression.
E. Hoffmann assigns an important role management experiences in social interaction , so it is sometimes called the theory of management theory impressions. He believes that people create a situation to express symbolic meanings with which they make a good impression on others. Man by his actions shows interest to regulate the behavior of others, especially their response. It affects not the situation itself, but gives the impression that causes others desire to go according to his intentions. A person can be both actor and audience at the same time, and between the role as "I" there is a distance . Due to the large number of roles , few people engrossed in a specific role. Role distance refers to the degree of distancing themselves from the role . For example, in the famous person test is offered 20 times to answer in monosyllables to the question " Who am I? ". When working on the test , some people have serious difficulties as to answer : Professor , PhD - for such people is to answer the question " what is your role." But in the test - then the question arises about the "I" . These people obviously there is a big role distance . Cleaner, washing floors with a languid sea might want to show the audience that she's too good for the job. Applicant is not passed the exam , retains role distance if says: " I worked poorly ." Entrant underestimating his mental faculties, shortens the role distance. Role distance is formed gradually as socialization. Expectant parents should be aware that it is very difficult, but it is necessary to carry out the rule: "Not assessed personality, estimated act." You cannot say, "You're a liar," but it is possible to say instead "you cheated." However, this rule and do a good job in dealing with relatives, friends, colleagues.
Watching the usual manifestations of social life, Goffman saw more than anyone before him did. His goal has always been the greatest possible approximation to the "public nature" and its most accurate fixation. In several books, he has consistently described the image of society that is created despite the reader literally visual image.
As the subject of his research Goffman made "order of interaction" - all that is done in society, when people come into direct mutual contacts . Naturally, this does not cover all aspects of social life , but is important enough to become a separate field of sociology knowledge. The fact of our human nature is that most of the daily life takes place in close proximity to others, in other words, no matter what we do, our actions are likely to be socially conditioned. In the simplest social situations is the key to understanding and more complex aspects of society. The researcher can interpret the social situation as a natural comfortable vantage point from which he looks at the whole of social life. Interactions is exactly what is constantly in social situations , and hence , in such circumstances , in which two or more persons physically interact ." Interaction cover a wide range of mutually oriented activity - from fleeting exchange of views to talk or discussion. In most social situations encountered in our society, you can find countless mutual arrangement of people who are close to each other.
Interaction has two important properties that make it particularly fruitful subject of sociological analysis. First, it is a universal phenomenon, found everywhere, in all areas of public life , or contexts . Goffman says:
“Rules for pedestrians can equally well be studied in close kitchens and filled the streets , laws interrupt conversations at dinner , and in the courtroom , intimate treatment - at the supermarket and in the bedroom .” (Goffman, p. 127)
Secondly , interaction is a universal phenomenon , which in its main features is happening in every team , regardless of time and place. Beneath the cultural differences people are the same everywhere Every society , if it wants to be a society must mobilize their members to participate in meetings of self-regulating.
Besides, the individual has a personal "facade " that accompanies him or her in different situations. It includes such perceived by others signs , such as age , gender, racial or ethnic traits , profession or rank insignia , height, bearing, dress , hairstyle, makeup , facial expression , etc. Added to this are various accessories used by people: glasses, umbrella, walking stick, jewelry, bag , watch , etc. All components "facade" as decorations and personal traits , values or carrier status markers , primarily age group , gender, race and social class . Uniforms and uniforms may indicate the professional category: military, police or doctor . In some religions , such as Islam or Judaism, the religion piece suggests .
All these features open up the possibility of deliberate manipulation , but in varying degrees : change furniture in the cabin is easier than to buy a house in the aristocratic district , it is easier to change the facial expression than skin color , buy luxury watches easier than luxury car . Manipulation is based on the award- fronted previously naive , literal reading of characters the audience, but there are signs that can be used to confirm the existence of something that , in essence, no. With action, using sets and personal "facade", a man tries to show his other face, ie, self-image, formed in accordance with socially recognized attributes. Loss of face is a situation where some human actions contradict his image, are discordant. Then one tries to regain face with separate correcting interactions, such as apologies, explanations, self-irony, etc.
Goffman follows the concept of multiplicity H. According to her , the man has as many different social I , as there are groups in which it participates life and opinions of the members of which are significant for him . In each of these groups of people is like a different in many ways, therefore, illustrates the various aspects of his personality , his social and H. Hence interpretation of Goffman interaction, which , in his opinion , really is not so much between specific individuals as between the various parties and their individual manifestations. Summing up the consideration of symbolic interactionism , it is necessary to note the interest of his supporters not so much to the sociological problems of a general theoretical nature , as to matters of a concrete plan that requires empirical study . This is primarily different forms of everyday life , interaction between people within them . Proponents of symbolic interactionism never developed theories of social development problems of the state, government and others, because it contradicted their understanding of the main subject in the sociological study of personality and the "core" of his subject field - interpretation of everyday behavior of individuals in the process of symbolic interaction. In this same area of scientific research related to the study of everyday life, they have made a worthy contribution , which can be considered symbolic interactionism as one of the paradigms of modern sociology.
Fine G. A., Manning P. (n.d.) Erving Goffman. Blackwell Publishers
Goffman E. (1959) The presentation of self in everyday life. Anchor
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Shakespeare W. (n.d) As you like it. Retrieved from http://shakespeare.mit.edu/asyoulikeit/full.html