If x is causally sufficient for y, then it is necessary that y is causally necessary for x (Pg. 284).
Construct an evil twin for the following valid argument form:
P1: If Not-A then (B and C)
C: B and C
“Not (B and C)” (Pg. 242).
Damning evidence might be known by the arguer to whose argument it applies.
FALSE (Pg. 357).
4. 1 + 1 = 2 is sufficient for getting any grade in this course. (Pg. 282) (We always have grades in this course, therefore, anything is sufficient for getting any grade).
5. Given a proof by contradiction (PBC) whose support is .4 and whose original premises are false, the negation of the conclusion can't be evaluated for truth (Pg. 245).
6. If x is a node in a hierarchically organized tree structure, then it is necessary for all nodes in the tree structure lower than it (Pg. 280).
7. P1: 5% of all Rutgers/Newark students will not study this weekend. P2: Sleepy-Head is a Rutgers/Newark student. What can be concluded about Sleepy-Head from these premises? If the sample of Rutgers/Newark students was random, there is a 1 in 20 chance that Sleepy-Head will not study (Pg. 301).
8. Not every substitution instance of the following argument form is valid (Pg. 242):
P1: If not-q then not-not-p
9. When you infer "x is causally sufficient for y" from "x is sufficient for y" without additional information, you have committed the false cause fallacy (Pg. 283).
10. No substitution instance of the following argument form is invalid (Pg. 242):
P1: If p then not-q
11. Going to the pharmacy AND listening to Beethoven’s music is pseudo-necessary for flying pigs (Pg. 282). (this is because B never occurs)
12. The reason why a PBC with support 0 is worthless is that there is at least one situation in which the conjunction of the negation of the conclusion in which the augmented premise set is true, but you do not know which one it is (Pg. 245).
13. When we conjecture x causes y and perform an experiment to prove this is so, how do we rule out the case that y causes x AND x and y occur at the same time? By running the experiment several times using a control group (Pg. 284).
14. If you encounter a substitution instance of Modus Ponens in which the first premise is false, is it rational to believe the conclusion? NO, (Pg. 232).
15. Suppose that you conduct a poll for a Presidential Election (in the United States) by going to various educational institutions to interview people working there. Suppose you have a true random sample of all educational institutions in the United States. Is your poll subject to the fallacy of bias? YES, (Pg. 305).
16. "We have no evidence that the NSA monitoring of phone conversations has led to any curtailment in the democratic life of the nation. We can only conclude that there has been no curtailment in the democratic life of the nation." The fallacy is known as that of argument from ignorance (Pg. 346).
17. "Eating raw liver is better than nothing. Nothing is better than this course. Therefore, eating raw liver is better than this course." The fallacy is known as equivocation (Pg. 363)
18."Swampman beer™ is just so lacking in taste, and that’s why you must buy Kronkedman™ beer. The fallacy is known as that of feeling (Pg. 372).
19. "The last three exams were pretty easy and straightforward, so it's a safe bet that tomorrow’s exam will also be easy and straightforward." The fallacy is known as that of feeling (Pg. 348).
20. "Wherever you go, there you are. It follows that no one ever gets lost."
The fallacy is of vagueness (Pg. 367).