The health care providers can handle the issue between the culture of medicine and the beliefs and practices through a well-improved and well-enhanced communication with the patients. The communication is based on the nationality of family origin, ethnic heritage, religion, age, disability, socioeconomic status, and sexual orientation. Considering the definition of cultural awareness and sensitivity, the interpersonal skills and knowledge allow the providers to appreciate, understand, and work with the individuals from cultures of others. It implies that the sensitivity includes the awareness and acceptance of the cultural difference, knowledge, and self-awareness of the culture of the patients with the adaptations of skills. Correspondingly, the cultural sensitivity starts with the better understanding that there are several differences among cultures. In relation to the Community-Based Participatory Research or CBPR, its program design and implementation engage the multiple stakeholders that include the public and community providers. Consequently, the public and community providers are mainly affected by the problem of concern. The collaborative approach to research justifiably entails all partners in the research process; it recognizes the distinctive strengths it brings. The CBPR starts with the research topic of the significance to the community that aims to combine the knowledge with the appropriate actions, for example, the social change in order to improve health in general. In addition, the CBPR highlights the success of the approaches to infection prevention and intervention that address many challenges of the traditional research and practice. The practices cover the adaptation of interventions within the local contexts, support the integration of local cultural knowledge, lessen mistrust, and training among the individuals in the community who experienced infection disparities. Nationally, the study implicates the development of understanding the impact of the program on lightening the health disparities. Its purpose is to enhance the thorough understanding of the barriers to effective CBPR.
In the article entitled, “Incorporating HIV Prevention into the Medical Care of Person with Living with HIV,” it is effective in terms of its cultural appropriateness and relevance to the population. In the United States, the reduction of the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus or HIV requires innovative strategies that highlight the prevention of transmission of HIV-infected individuals. The constant attention to the prevention of the dangerous sexual behaviors among individuals with HIV infection can result in its reduction and prevention. In view of the fact that the number of individuals affected by HIV in America has increased that heavily burdened the health care providers. The medical care providers have the key influence in the prevention of the HIV transmission through screening the patients, particularly for risk, sexual and drug-use behaviors, communicating prevention information, referral for services such as treatments, counseling, and testing, positive reinforcement to safer behavior, and the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases. In fact, the National Institute of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Resources and Services Administration, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America have developed the recommendations to assist I integrating HIV prevention into the medical care of HIV-infected individuals. Evidently, a study summarizes the published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices or 3MV. It is a human immunodeficiency virus or sexually transmitted disease prevention intervention in the reduction of sexual risk behaviors and protective behaviors among the black men who have sex with men. Generally, the HIV prevention covers all the individuals regardless of sex, age, race, or ethnicity. The HIV prevention science and activities are driven by the epidemiology of HIV transmission; its research is related to behavior change science and by interventions that proven the effective reduction of risk for HIV infection. The chosen strategies are culturally appropriate because the prevention uses an evidence-based approach that provides major components such as HIV transmission risk behaviors and STDs screening, behavior risk reduction interventions, and facilitating notification and counseling.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2011). Cultural Sensitivity and
Awareness in the Delivery of Health Care. Obstet Gynecol , 117 (493), 1258–61.
Manual. New Jersey: Division of HIV, STD and TB Services Prevention and Education Unit. Retrieved February 3, 2016, from https://hpcpsdi.rutgers.edu/news/downloads/HIV%20Prevention%20Interventions%20Standards%20Manual%20rev%201.11.pdf.
Herbst, J. H., Painter, T. M., Tomlinson, H. L., & Alvarez, M. E. (2014). Evidence-Based
HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men. MMWR Surveill Summ, 63 (1), 21-27.
Horowitz, C. R., Robinson, M., & Seifer, S. (2009). Key Issues in Outcomes Research:
Community-Based Participatory Research From the Margin to the Mainstream. Circulation, 119, 2633-2642. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.729863.
Jaffe, H. W., & Janssen, R. S. (2003). Incorporating HIV Prevention into the Medical Care of
Persons Living with HIV: Recommendations of CDC, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society. CDC. Retrieved February 3, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5212a1.htm.
LeGrand, S., & Toth, M. (2009). HIV and STDs in Guilford County: A Comprehensive Guide for
a Way Forward. Duke University. Center for Health Policy. Retrieved February 3, 2016, from http://www.conehealthfoundation.com/app/files/public/119/doc-foundation-HIV-AIDS.pdf.
Simonds, V. W., Wallerstein, N., Duran, B., & Villegas, M. (2013). Community-Based
Participatory Research: Its Role in Future Cancer Research and Public Health Practice. Prev Chronic Dis, 10, 1-7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd10.120205.