Asthma is increasing becoming a national concern in the United States due to its economic and health impacts. In 2010, about 25 million of the population in the USA suffered from Asthma (CDC, 2014). This translates to about 10 percent of the entire population. In 2009, asthma killed nine people on average each day. The USA spends $ 56 billion in treating asthma each year (CDC, 2014). It should be appreciated that asthma is incurable. However, if managed and treated properly, a person with Asthma can live normally. This paper seeks to critique a study by McClelland et al. on Asthma. It will evaluate the research methods, results, discussion and provide a reflection on the study. The study was conducted among African-American families with children living with asthma. It sought to understand their perception of Asthma. The researchers wanted to provide evidence that would improve the patient-specific communication among health workers serving African American with asthma in underserved areas.Methods
The study relied primarily on narrative design in collecting data. A narrative design was selected because the study was interested in the personal experiences of the study participants. The target population was families in urban setting having at-least school-age child (5-18 years) who suffered from asthma for at-least one year. Participation was voluntary. The researchers selected 35 families. However, only ten families participated in the study and 35 individual participants. Interviews were implemented to obtain the experiences of the participants. Data was recorded by note taking, tape recording and transcribing. The data was analyzed by metaphorical analysis. The researchers choose metaphorical analysis because of its ability to not only understand the meaning, but also the values participants attached to their experiences. The researchers focused on the words and language patterns in order to identify thought models and communication patterns of participants’ perception of their experiences.Results
104 metaphor groups were identified. The 104 groups were classified further into 16 classes. The 16 classes were further analyzed through data analysis and collaboration. Consequently, three metaphor themes were identified. They are; asthma family id medical centre; asthma is playful and improper management of asthma related to the knowledge deficit. The researchers then identified metaphor taxonomies for each of the metaphor themes and consequently developed metaphor paradigms. The study revealed that the family was the first healthcare giver in recognizing, assessing and diagnosing. It is only after it worsened that an intervention was sought. Secondly, several responses indicated that asthma is playful in the sense that its symptoms hide, it is active and it prevents play. Lastly, it also revealed misperception by various parties prevents health restoration.Discussion
The researchers made several important deductions from the study. Firstly, the family is the first health givers to children suffering from Asthma. Therefore, there is a need for nurses to educate families and patients from underserved urban areas on recognition, assessment, diagnosis and management of asthma. The study confirms the need for constant nurse communication. Secondly, the study revealed that children are fearful of seeking medical help because they think adults will not believe them. Therefore, it is important for guardians, teachers and other parties to reassure children to ease these fears. Lastly, there are inaccurate interventions by several families in treatment of asthma. Therefore, there is a need to create awareness among the general public on appropriate interventions.Reflection
The study provides vital information considering the gravity of asthma on the health and economic conditions of the US. The study focus on African American is plausible considering that African American have a higher prevalence rate of asthma compared to the general population. The researcher use of a qualitative approach is important because it provides the personal experiences of the participants and not just numbers. However, qualitative research could include researcher’s bias.
CDC. (2014). Asthma Impact on The Nation: Data From CDC National Asthma Control Program. New York: Centre For Disease Control.
McClelland, M., Wenz, C., Sood, K., & Yono, A. (2013). Perception of Paedriatic Asthma in African American Underserved Families using Metaphorical Analysis. Journal for Specialists in peadriatic Nursing , 342-351.