1. The experiment with the dog revealed important facts about learning. Pavlov’s findings allowed us to comprehend how certain fears, aversions and sympathies become integrated in our behavior. His research also provided therapeutic implications for eliminating maladaptive behaviors created by classical conditioning. In that way he provided a key that helps a lot in modifying dysfunctional behaviors
2. Child visits a doctor and receives an injection. After that painful experience the child manifests fear from doctors.
3. I used to drink a lot of coffee and since coffee is diuretic I had to go to bathroom about half an hour after I drank it. As this occurred every time after drinking coffee, after a while I started experiencing urge to go to the bathroom after just smelling the coffee. This became very unpleasant and eventually I stopped drinking it.
4. Emotional conditioning is one of the most important findings in psychology of learning. Little Albert study, although a bit cruel, gave priceless contribution to psychotherapy. This experiment explains how irrational fears are created, but also provides a recipe for their elimination.
5. The main difference is in what is associated in these types of learning. Classical conditioning implies connection between stimuli while in operant conditioning a bond is created between behavior and stimuli. Classical conditioning engages glands and CNS and operant skeletal muscles. Person who learns is passive in creating conditional reflex and active in operant learning. Operant learning enables a subject build new behaviors while in classical conditioning subjects use existing behaviors, only new association is created.
6. Positive reinforcement is praise after doing something good. Negative reinforcement is burning sensation when putting hand on an iron. When my boyfriend flows down because I don’t call him is punishment by application. Punishment by removal is when my car are taken from me because I was driving too fast
7. Punishment can have negative effect on individual, especially child. It does not help us build new behaviors, instead it teaches us not to manifest behaviors that we already learned. Punishment only inhibits behavior, it does not eliminate it. This is why I think that punishments should be used with precaution if not completely avoided.
8. When I have to learn something I find uninteresting I usually stop after a while saying “I can’t do this” and give up. Fortunately it doesn’t last very long.
9. My aunt is only 10 years older than me and when I was a child she was a teenager. I was completely fascinated by her and my gesture and mimic were very similar to hers. Now I know that this resemblance is due to operant learning.
10. Television has great impact on behavior. It presents famous individuals who are living glamorously and wearing expensive clothes. Teenagers tend to imitate their life style without any criticism. Violence is another problem. Due to so much violence on television we become habituated to it, even if it occurs outside of television.
11. The video talks about the impact of mothers’ wellbeing and surrounding on fetus. It discuses about important aspects of pregnancy, in which fetus can learn. Even though this learning is unconscious it has a great influence on later development. Here we mentioned another forms of unconscious learning such as classical and operant conditioning. All of these types of learning occur unwillingly and they all have adaptive purpose.
1. Three stages of memory are sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory. The information enters through sensory memory in which is retained from 1 to 3 seconds. In short-term memory the retention time is prolonged to 5 to 20 seconds, while long-term memory holds information permanently. Capacity of sensory memory is unlimited and so is capacity of long-term memory, while short-term memory has limited capacity. According to Miler long-term memory can hold 5 to 9 information. Function of sensory memory is to select those information which are important; working memory (short-term) operates with those information and connects them to information from long-term memory. Long-term memory has the function to preserve information, organize them and provide them once they are needed.
2. Simple memorization is not effective since it provides knowledge that will be easily forgotten. If we need to learn something it would be much more efficient if we learn it using some technique for memorization. Adopting the right technique will give better results than simply memorizing without a plan. 3. I had a car accident ten years ago. I was with my parents and I can recall every single detail from that event. I know what my parents were talking about prior to the accident I remember what song was on the radio. I think that it is pretty accurate picture of what I witnessed. 4. It is more likely that I will forget the material, if I don’t learn it thoroughly. Also, if I learn two similar subjects in one sitting I usually forget it easily. Finding similarities and differences from two materials would be an excellent strategy for learning. This will process information and place them in long-term memory. When something is learned for the first time it should be learned properly. There should be a pause between learning two different materials so that inhibition could be avoided. 5. Are all three domains of memory affected by Alzheimer’s disease? Which contents remain in memory? Can individuals with Alzheimer’s disease be aware of the impairment?