1. Kirchhoff’s Loop Rule is followed by a circuit if the sum of the voltages (considering polarity) of the circuit components across a particular direction in the loop is equal to zero. In a typical circuit, there is a voltage source and there are components that are powered by the source. Kirchhoff’s Loop Rule is verified by finding that the sum of the voltages across the components in the loop is equal to the voltage source.
Kirchhoff’s Junction Rule is followed by a circuit if the sum of the currents entering the junction is equal to the sum of the currents leaving the junction. For any one junction in the circuit, Kirchhoff’s Junction Rule can be verified by measuring all the currents entering and leaving the junction.
2. The formula for Ohm’s Law is:
If two resistors are in series, say R1 and R2, the formula becomes:
The formula becomes:
Since the equivalent parallel resistance is counted as a single conductor, the voltage potential across it is fixed; thus the voltage across each resistor is the same.
3. High voltage power systems mean that the system also works with high currents. In this case, the distinction between ALL and MOST is significant because some non-negligible amounts of currents must pass through the other components with higher resistances. These currents should be monitored carefully because some of them might damage the system in the parts where they are unwanted.
4. One practical use of lenses and diffraction gratings are in optical storage devices, namely CDs, DVDs and Blu-ray discs. These devices are fabricated using high-quality ruling engines, holographic interference patterns, or holographic volume gratings.