Classical school of criminology
Classical school of criminology describes the works of classical philosophers. This school of thought is developed on the premise that people’s participation crime is through their reliance of free will. In this regard, the application of punishment to a criminal behaviour was as seen as a deterrent to crime. It follows the primitive systems and mechanisms of enhancing societal order in which a range of punishments (Siegel, 2016). These forms of punishment include whipping, mutilation and executions for criminal behaviour. This school bases the argument on spirituality. That because we were born either male or female, people do not have control over their actions. Crime was regarded as a private affair under this school.
Positivist school of criminology
Positivist school of criminology perceives crime from a scientific point of view. This school attempt to measure and quantify crime suing scientific methods. The school divides scientific objectivity into three types which include biological positivism, social positivism and psychological positivism (Vito & Maahs, 2015). Biological positivism looks at the biological components of an individual and relate these components with a criminal behaviour. These components include physical characteristics, intelligence, adrenaline and testosterone (Siegel, 2016). Observing a person’s biological characteristics absolved the state and government for taking part in crime. Instead, crime is perceived from an individual point of view. Psychological positivism was the work of Sigmund Freud who opined that people take part in crime because of mental illness or weak conscience. Social positivism believes that the society is the cause of criminal behaviour. This positivist theory believes that a society can make an individual to take part in crime. Areas that experience high prevalence of crime are likely to register a high number of criminals.
Neoclassical school of criminology
Neoclassical school of criminology anchors on the principle of utilitarianism, morality and social utility and social control theory. This schools believes in the administration of punishment for a criminal behaviour. This school believes that crime can only be deterred by punishing individuals that take part in it in a bid to keep the society safe (Vito & Maahs, 2015). Under the social contract theory, people’s behaviour can be controlled externally by causing pain to criminal acts or internally when their conscience precludes them from taking part in crime.
Real life experience
A contingent of police officers arrived in our school moments after ten o’clock. Everyone looked surprised because such an incident had never occurred in the institution. Rumours started streaming in. There was talk of an impending terrorist attack in the neighbouring town and the local police was doing its best to nip the problem in the bud. Shortly after they had arrived, the lead officer and the school principal walked into our classroom. There was a group of policemen behind. Most parts of the school was littered with officers carrying guns. Everyone was eager to know what could have happened. No sooner had they uttered a word than Peter, my desk mate, walked in the direction of the door. He lifted his hands up in surrender as he walked towards the duo. I came to know that Peter was part of a syndicate that was accused of terrorism and cybercrime. At the age of fourteen, peter had been radicalized by Al Qaeda, the global terror network. His surrender to the police relates to psychological positivism which states that an individual can participate in crime if they have a weak conscience. Peter’s weak conscience and feeling of guilt made him go the police even the class could know what had brought the officer to the school.
Siegel, L. (2016). Criminology: the core. Nelson Education.
Vito, G. F., & Maahs, J. R. (2015). Criminology. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.