Introduction This paper outlines and in details explains how the modern –day Holmes applies or extends the cinematic concepts borrowed from the early classical conventions of Conan Doyle. The comparison and contrast are crucial in understanding whether changes, extensions or imitation of the previous works have altered or improved the literature. Therefore, this rhetorical analysis is geared towards examining the characters, scenes, settings, plots, themes, and literature style of the two chronologically divided works. Because written texts and TV series are meant to satisfy the target audience, the bottom-line of scenic details is to pass the messages to the audience satisfactorily. In the prior works of Conan, the Sherlock Holmes were written in texts and so the audience were to read and analyze the styles used, themes passed, and the character (Doyle 23-28). Consequently, analysis was dependent on the readers’ imaginations and thoughts. All the scenes were followed as per the perception of the audience. On the other hand, the current BBC TV series have brought high levels of sophistication. Complex cinematic modifications have come up, particularly on settings. The cameras become the narrators and assist the audience in understanding the scene and the characters. However, the late developments are because of dynamism, particularly in human culture. Peoples’ reading habits have drastically deteriorated and now many of the audience opt for watching rather than reading the text. These accomplishments limit the audiences’ task since they only need to follow actors or actresses actions to understand the plots (Adams 162-177). The cameras are used as audiences’ eye and tracking shots ease following of actors’ or actresses’ points of views. Notably, it is easier for the audience to feel characters’ emotions and actions when they watch, but the readers find it easy to analyze the contexts into fine details. It is worth noting that despite the changes; a lot have been retained from the ancient classical works of Conan Doyle’s text. However, the alterations in the 21st century are meant to conform to the audience, media, and contexts. Overview of Conan Doyle Classical Works Sherlock Holmes was first created by a Scottish writer named Sis Arthur Conan Doyle that commenced in the 1887. He is considered as the father of the modern day writings and plays about amateur private detectives. Although he was not the first writer to produce a work on detectives, Sherlock Holmes dwarfed the predecessors. It is important to stress that Sherlock Holmes was based on fictional grounds. Canon initiated the concept of scientific- minded detective’s and the art of rationality in the pursuit of crime events (Adams 199) Canon used fictional character as detectives, some of which were Auguste Dupin, Edgar Allan Poe’s C, Monsieur Lecoq and other figures such as Oscar Wilde and Dr Joseph Bell. The scenes of the earlier works, for instance, “A study in Scarlet,” used different backgrounds on the social, political, and cultural setting. These ideas have been adapted in the non-Canon episodes, particularly in the “A Study in Symbols.” (Doyle 53) Sir Canon created the Holmes to touch on issues of limitations in the policing process, social injustices and most importantly, in the superiority of science and rationality as opposed to the inferior traditional beliefs. The original Canon writing did not address the issue of modern society such as homosexuality and gender parity. Additionally, the works were limited to rationality pegged on philosophical grounds and did not dwell much on the current ideas and levels of sophistication. It is, therefore, worthy to reiterate that Sir Arthur Canon created the primary focus of the Sherlock Holmes series in terms of themes, genre amongst other adaptations in the literacy and social perspectives. For examples, the 1841 literature on “The Murder in the Morgue,” actor Augustine Dupin is introduced as the fictional detective. This role has persisted to been adapted to all the episodes of BBC TV series whose main character is Sherlock, the detective. What have been Retained from the Early Classical Literatures of Conan? The main Character Sir Arthur Conan created Sherlock Holmes in 1887 after building a career as a writer for a decade. “A Study in Scarlet” was the first novel that gained huge success, making Conan work on other three novels and fifty-six short stories. All his works featured a consulting detective as the main character. Therefore, the life of Sherlock is divided into two divisions. The first ended in 1893 after the writer killed off Sherlock in The Final Problem. Doyle did that to pause and pursue his further literacy ambitions. However, the name and the role of the main character have been retained by the post-Conan writers. Supposedly, the new era of Sherlock Holmes maintained the main actor to show a sense of originality and acknowledgement (Doyle 47-88). In the mid nineteenth century, the other successive stories emerged but still used the same genre of detective as the main player. Stories of Edgar Allan Poe together with the followers such as Charles Dickens, Emile Gaboriau, Wilkie Collins, and others copied the previous role of the main character as a detective (Stein and Kristina 200). In 2010, that is, more than 120 years after the debut of the original Sherlock Holmes, Steven Moffat, and Mark Gatiss came up with the series aired in the BBC TV. The first episode on A Study in Pink opens by crediting Sir Arthur. The John Watson character played by Martin Freeman returns from the war in Afghanistan without his proper identity, he then embarks on self-adventure. His meaningless life leads him to meet the detective, Sherlock. The above context just illustrates on the adaptations from the early stories of Conan. Genre The most conspicuous idea adopted from the previous classical stories is the genre. The 21st century storylines revolve around the consulting detective. Explicitly, Boyle believed in science thinking and rationality in improving the responsibility of the police. Similarly, the BBC series of the modern setting retain the genre. Science and technology form the basis of the TV episodes in investigation of crime scene (Stein and Kristina 203-208). For example, the episode A Study in Pink shows the always present application of technology by portraying Sherlock as digital wizard who expresses his intelligence with very advance technologies like use of Smartphone, GPS kits, and CCTV cameras. The episode depicts that in a crime scene, gathering and filtering data, and arriving at conclusions are all dependent on sophisticated technologies (Vanacker and Catherine 92). Background of the Stories Both the Conan and Post-Conan Sherlock Holmes addresses the problems of social, cultural, and political backgrounds. “The Light in the Darkness” and “Scarlet Turns Pink” stories of Boyle, the ultimate messages conveyed to the people of British Empire were about the social injustices, political influences, and cultural issues. The reign of Queen Victoria of around 75 years between 1837 and 1901 was associated with the industrial revolution, economic prosperity, and widening divide between the poor and the rich. Consequently, poverty, homelessness, crimes, and drug abuse were inevitable (Porter 211). These were coupled with flawed justice systems and outdated methodologies of investigations. Similarly, the latest century BBC series try to convey the exact issues, but on a complex network and coverage. Revised Aspects Complex Digitization and Application of Technology The modern era, Sherlock Holmes, shows a lot of complex applications of science and technology. In the episode “A Scandal in Belgravia,” detective Sherlock pursues criminal offenders. In his confrontation with a photographer, Irene Adler, who has photographs in which a female royal family member also took, Sherlock keeps the enemies at bay as they try to access the password of the mobile phone with the photos. This dramatic play conforms to the modern society activities and technologies which can only be kept safe and secret by use of a secret password. Likewise, “The Great Game” depicts how the villain Moriarty is being tracked with those who understand television like Moffat, but the villain escapes (Doyle 101-125). This connotes that the current society, both the police departments and the police apply technology to execute their operations. Theme of Scandals “The Great Game” also shows how the efforts of detective Sherlock are interrupted by government officials. The high-priced dominatrix called Irene Adler is protected by the intelligence personnel, but their hard work is thwarted by the high ranked officials. It sparked Sherlock to retrieve the camera to avoid the impending scandal (Porter 187). These scandals have a positive correlation on how the new era of police officials operates in the midst of scandal networks. Actions and Emotions The episodes of the BBC series clearly employ the styles of actions, emotions and are much attached to the audience. Through sound effect and visual effects, the scenes and plays create a social convention. These give the audience an easy task to conceptualize the character traits of the players and their role. For instance, Moffat and Gatiss' Sherlock, egotistical and selfish traits are clearly shown (Adams 75-80). Use of Media The 21st century fans of Sherlock Holmes are advantaged since the task of the reading is replaced with attending theatres or watching over the television. The cameras, Lights, and sound effects act as the narrator to the audience creating a paradigm of feelings through emotions and anxiety. Accessibility of the series has been increases since they are easily transferrable. Use of media is said to conform to the conventional lifestyle of the present population (Vanacker and Catherine 139-151) Conclusion The BBC series make references and allusions from the original stories of Sir Arthur Conan because the episodes show that the modern Sherlock Holmes don’t follow their plots strictly. To be in particular, the role of the main character, genre, and background have been adopted. Both the eras of Sherlock Holmes try to convey messages concerning social injustices, crime, deaths, drug abuse, and scandals that revolve around the social, cultural, and political grounds. Moreover, in both cases, the inception of application of science and technological models of investigations are embraced. It, therefore, to use of rationality and following specified standard procedures in the quest for justice. However, the efforts of the intelligence group are derailed by scandals within a complex system. Nonetheless, “The Great Game” and “A Scandal in Belgravia” depict some revisions and advances. These later developments have used a whole new level of technological sophistication and fiction.
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