Globalization can be defined as the intensified way the people and governments of different people interact and the acceleration of these interactions (Ritzer, 2010). Normally, the focus is on the changes occurring in the political and economic spheres. However, it is now being recognized at large that globalization does have a significant impact on local culture. Culture can be understood broadly as the overall ways in which a society preserves, identifies, organizes, sustains, and expresses itself. The gist of this literature is to describe the consequences and benefits of globalization within the Sudan context. Additionally, it covers policies proposed by Sudan to preserve culture or values.
Globalization and Culture in Sudan
As a developing country in Africa, Sudan has been rated by UNDP as number 167 in HDI (index. Has a population of 38.8 millions of people ("Overview - Sudan | Intercultural Learning," n.d.). Overall life expectancy is 63.5 years, a maximum of 7 years schooling, income of 3,808.9, GDI (Gender development index) (gender) 0.83, as well as poverty-multi-dimensional Poverty Index (MPDI) -0.29. Additionally, work employment and vulnerability at 45.5%, homicide at 11.2, trade and financial flows from imports or exports 188.8.131.52 per 100 people using mobile phones, as well as an environmental sustainability of 0.4 co2 emitted in the air ("Overview - Sudan | Intercultural Learning," n.d.).
In Sudan, indigenous people may view culture as the richest heritage to bring development. Ideally, without culture citizens believe they cannot develop. Globalization may offer people in Sudan an opportunity to access products that are not available locally. A concern can be the treat it pauses to locally available products. For example, the introduction of foreign goods in the market like GMO chicken at lower prices can displace local producers of indigenous chicken (Faundez & Tan, 2010).
Globalization also increases international trade for things like movies that depict foreign and exposure to these cultures. Through such a trade, the country may create trade networks that increase its exports hence improving per capita (Carbaugh, 2009). Through globalization, rituals can be performed in the theater to attract pay performing arts, which also give a self-expression to promote local culture, educate or sensitize communities, as well as entertain foreigners who pay. When these activities are strengthened, centers are build. The centers can employ people, which imply they create an employment opportunity. However, this may eventually interfere with local culture and practices of the people of Sudan.
Globalization does more than only improving awareness about events in other countries. Values on matters, for example, human rights, democracy, as well as on definite concerns, such as health concerns can be gained. Global network forms foundations, academic networks, non-governmental organizations, some governmental, as well as multinational agencies (such as the UN system and development agencies), which have become transmission agents for what they perceive to be positive cultural values (Carbaugh, 2009). This provides a marketing platform for the African culture.
Policies in Sudan that promote African Culture
The Constitution of Sudan
With the adoption of the constitution in 1998, the constitution provides guiding principles for the state. The constitution describes the nation's freedoms or rights and explains the responsibilities of the state or its citizens (Beken & C, 2012). The constitution states that all the indigenous languages are national languages, which shall be respected, developed, and promoted. The official language in Sudan is the English language; it can be a way of preserving culture and values if the government declared the indigenous languages as national languages (Beken & C, 2012).
Protection of Natural Resources Policy
The geography of Sudan is flat with mountains in the east and west. Policies are put in place to maintain this environment, which attract economic development. The topography of Sudan attracts local intervention that is geared towards productivity when ownership is clear. Working on land resources, ensures the sense of community solidarity, which is significant. Land in Sudan belongs to the different communities, ethnic groups, and tribes (Beken & C, 2012)
The majority of citizens in Sudan depends on agriculture as an economic activity. The country practices traditional economy and lacks central planning on agriculture by the administration. Sudan is a member of the COMESA, which implies it can be prudent to develop policies that ensure maximum agricultural production to supply products to the COMESA markets. Promoting such policies can reduce poverty through increasing agricultural production and marketing of local product through COMESA. Cultural industries have the potential to promote the livelihoods of the marginalized, the poor, and the vulnerable. Cultural industries create employment opportunities and produce economic gains or incomes at all levels. These cultural industries can further contribute to cultural development by protecting and enriching cultural values, promoting creativity, optimizing skills, as well as human resources. Additionally, they express and convey messages that foster understanding or peace. For that reason, cultural industries should be promoted, protected, and developed to promote local agricultural, cultural products (Beken & C, 2012)
Improving education in Sudan would be a major step in maintaining the culture. With low education index, there is little exposure through skill and knowledge earned in school. Reinforcement of education policy implies many Sudanese can have access to knowledge. The country can address internal conflict by teaching tolerance, fathoming, as well as equipping her citizens with the capability to address conflict in a non-violent style. Many South Sudanese are being exposed to democracy for the first time and do not completely comprehend their rights as well as what they should anticipate under such governance or system (Beken & C, 2012). In the absence of a countrywide education strategy to implement a newly-developed unified curriculum, conflict may likely continue.
Educating can foster peace by focussing on instructions about peace, civic, as well as citizenship education. These fields are significant in building the knowledge as well as skills needed for the citizens to be responsible. Ideally, education on peace promotes a culture of peace as well as peace creation via conflict mitigation, resolution, or reconciliation. Additionally, civic education anticipates creating an understanding or knowledge on the democratic framework based on concepts of civic as well as human rights.
Enactment of a foreign policy can promote international cooperation especially between Africa countries and UN, which can be helpful for the restoration as well as maintenance of universal peace (Beken & C, 2012). This will encourage political stability, which allows promotion and preservation of cultural values. Additionally, allows non-interference in the affairs of other states, promotion of good neighborliness, and cooperation among all Sudan’s neighbors.
Environmental Preservation Policy
Environmental sustainability is currently crucial in the African countries. There is a need for the Sudanese to have a policy on environmental protection to fight the danger of increased oxygen emission because of globalization. This will combat the health dangers posed to the ecological environment of the country.
In conclusion, the culture function is broad and, therefore, requires the continuous mobilization of resources to implement programs and activities. Deliberate efforts by different stakeholders are necessary to ensure increased and sustained resource mobilization. Resources can be mobilized by developing specific programs and plans to attract investment as well as funding. Efforts and activities of preserving the local culture from the homogenizing effects of globalization are, more often than not, intertwined with others issues, in some situations, questionable motives such as economic protectionism as well as the political suppression of ideas. By definition, the topic of culture entails every endeavor of citizens or people. For that reason, it is can be challenging drawing the distinction of the legitimate cultural activities or worthy protective measures.
Beken, & C. (2012). Unity in diversity: Federalism as a mechanism to accommodate ethnic diversity: the case of Ethiopia. Berlin: LIT.
Carbaugh, R. J. (2009). International economics. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Faundez, J., & Tan, C. (2010). International Economic Law, Globalization and Developing Countries. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub.
Overview - Sudan | Centre for Intercultural Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.intercultures.ca/cil-cai/overview-apercu-eng.asp?iso=sd
Ritzer, G. (2010). Globalization: A basic text. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.