1. What is the strongest objection to Anselm's Proslogion 2 argument?
The greatest objection to Anselm's Proslogion is the fact that Anselm contradicts his views. It is not clear what Anselm's perception of God is. According to him, God is a supreme being that exhibits traits of perfection. At the same time, Anselm describes God as being a simple being that goes about the activities of the universe calmly and in a silent manner. The next set of traits that Anselm describes brings out God as being an associated with eternity. Eternity in this context refers to life everlasting. This is a life that does not end. In other words, God has been in existence long before man, and is bound to live longer than the universe. The last set of traits portrays God as a God of necessity. While this remains to be an ambiguous description, the viewpoint of Anselm is rather a mixture of opinions that contradict with one another (Oppy and Scott, 2010). The description or rather the definition given by Anselm is the main cause of confusion. Anselm describes the Supreme Being as that than which no better can be thought. A further objection comes in the sense that God Himself can be thought of.
2. Is Aquinas' Second Way successful? If not, why not?
Among Aquinas’ five ways of attempting to prove the existence of God, the second way is the most controversial, in such a manner that it is full of loopholes. Apparently, the second way suggested by Aquinas was not, at all, successful as the technique was based on weak assumptions. Aquinas argued that God was the first efficient cause. He explained the concept the first efficient cause through such examples as the relation between a father and a son and his son and so on (Oppy and Scott, 2010). This way, he intended to make use of a series. The theory was dismissed as being insufficient by such theories as the theory of quantum physics which explain the big bang theory.
3. Is Paley's watchmaker' argument successful? If not, why not?
According to Paley, the complexity and internal structure of a watch, is a manifestation of the character and capabilities of the maker. This theory, coined in the year 1802 argues that, according to the case of the watchmakers, God’s greatness is manifested in the complexity of the human body as well as the many features in the universe. This theory was not successful in explaining since Paley failed to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that God was the creator and, therefore the designer, of the universe.
4. Was Paley's watchmaker' argument successful prior to the discovery of evolutionary theory?
Prior to the evolution theory, the Watchmakers perception was successful since almost all people believed in the existence of God. Prior to the theory of the natural selection and evolution, creation was done by the Supreme Being. After the theory of evolution, people accepted science as being a better explanation of the existence of the creation.
5. What is the strongest objection to fine-tuning' cosmological arguments?
The theory within this perspective is in a way that considers the universe a place that is in continuous adjustment to meet the needs and accommodate the human race, as well as other flora and fauna in it (Oppy and Scott, 2010). The strongest objective is based on the loopholes of this assumption. For instance, the theory cannot explain why human beings cannot venture into space and other distant planets. Additionally, the theory cannot explain why almost 95% of the organisms are now extinct.
6. Do Philo's objections show that Cleanthes' like effects, like causes' argument is unsuccessful?
According to Philos, people should not endeavor to hold the existence of God in doubt. Instead, it is more justifiable to question the nature and functioning of the Supreme Being. The objections show that the argument is unsuccessful because for there to be an consequence, there must be a cause.
7. What are three strong objections to Pascal's wager?
The first major objection has been said, by many scholars to be the Many Gods objection. This objection presumes that by the varied descriptions, there are many Gods. The second objection is the fact that to believe in the existence of God, one must be prepared to buy the impossible presumption which regard to theism. The third argument is that, maybe, God does not exist and hence there is a force ruling the world, which is likely to punish the lovers of God.
8. Is Pascal's wager immoral?
9. What is the strongest objection to Mackie's logical argument from evil?
According to Mackie, God is omnipotent, meaning he is capable of handling virtually everything; God is in every respect good. Mackie further explains that evil exist. The explanation continues into the fact that where there is good, such good should endeavor to do away with evil. In other words, Mackie does not believe in the existence of God.
10. What is the strongest objection to logical arguments from evil?
The strongest objection is embedded in the fact that God does not subsist on his own. As such, the weaknesses of the human race spoils’ a lot and brings the faults in the world.
11. Is Rowe's evidential argument from evil successful? If not, why not?
The argument stated that the fact that evil has no justifier, theism is false. This argument is rather baseless considering that nobody is ready to condemn the trillions of cases of evil around the world. Apparently, the approach is not right as it focuses more on evil than good.
12. Does the noseeum' response to Rowe's evidential argument show that Rowe's argument is unsuccessful?The noseeum' response to Rowe's shows that indeed, the argument by Rowe is wrong since, as much as people suffer, they do not know exactly what the cases of the problems are. As such, the existence of God is a tough, and comprehensive
Oppy, G. & Scott, M. (2010) Reading Philosophy of Religion: Selected Texts with Interactive Commentary. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.