This paper focuses on the importance of knowledge, attitudes as well as avoidance behavior toward second-hand smoking. Further, this paper expounds on the hypotheses of tobacco-control policies implemented and majorly illuminating on college attending population. The paper points at the population in college because this is the stage or level in whic most people are carefree and end up trying a lot of things. Many students in college are exposed to tobacco due to availability or influence.
While secondhand smoke exposure is potentially preventable, it remains a huge point of concern globally. Public health and environmental activists have joined hands to set up infrastructure to combat this environmental pollutant. With the aid of a descriptive design, a cross-section assessment was used in this research to determine the knowledge, avoidance behaviors, attitudes and policy agreements of second-hand smoke exposure among college attending population. A study was therefore conducted in three colleges in Colorado (public and private) and 800 college students were engaged. These students filled in four questionnaires;
• The Household Exposure to Second Hand Smoke Questionaire
• The Second Hand Smoke Avoidance Exposure Scale Questionaire
• A Questionaire on the Knowledge of Second Hand Smoke Exposure
• A Questionaire on the Avoidance Scale of Second Hand Smoke Exposure
Module 5.1 Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics were used in this case. The reason for using descriptive statistics in this research is because there was need to get the exact figures and in details. The questions revolved around the awareness and knowledge of the dangers and preventative measures of second-hand smoke to non-smoking students. Using the descriptive statistics option, it was easy to decipher not only the percentage but also the standard deviation of the students at risk of second-hand smoke (Owing, 2005 p.491). The findings revealed that exposure to secondhand smoke among non-smoking college students was 96%.
Module 5.2 The Level of Significance and use of P Value
The significance of this research is to weigh the level of SHS exposure among college attending students in three colleges (private and public) in Colorado. More so, this research paper aims to assess the students knowledge and perception on all matters SHS. This research aims at calling the attention of various tobacco-control programs in the U.S, in a bid to improve the health of college attending students (Sarna, 2009 p.216). . The study indicated that a ban aided in students compliance and helped to assess regular smokers. SHS could cause lung cancer”significantly raised awareness among non-smokers than smokers (p<0.05).
Further, research on the mean hours of second-hand smoke exposure on a daily basis was 4.64, which yielded a standard deviation of 4.28. The study indicated that each week exposure days summed to 5.14 days, which yielded a standard deviation of 2.1. Given the total number of students that reported high hours of second hand smoke, it is clear that while a number of students are knowledgeable of second-hand smoke dangers and the necessary avoidance behaviors, these non-smoking students were unable to protect themselves from second-hand smoke. There was therefore need for a thorough advocacy on interventions to mitigate the dangers of second-hand smoke exposure within colleges and the U.S at large.
Researchers have declared smoking as arguably the number one cause of preventable deaths in the United States. Half a million deaths are caused by cigarette use yearly. Smokers do not only put their health in danger , but also of those around them through second-hand smoke. While little is apparent about the second-hand smoke attitude in college-going population,a study seeking to address this attitude has been undertaken. Research convincingly indicates that disaster caretakers face a great risk for compassion fatigue.
The research therefore indicated that a majority of the smokers (75%) were male and 68.4% of the respondents were female smokers. This is a clear indication that a good number of the male smokers were willing to answer the questionnaires as compared to the female smokers. However, both male and female non-smokers participated equally in answering the questionnaires. The study further unearthed that 17% of the smokers received a warning ticket and verbal warning for smoking in non-smoking zones.
According to this research, there is a significant difference in knowledge between smoking and non-smoking college students. According to this research, messages that talk about smoking such as ‘smoking causes lung cancer and impotence’ was result-oriented among non-smokers. “It is however clear that a good number of non-smokers are oblivious and clueless on how to handle second-hand smoking. It is however clear that the message “smoking could result to immense weight gain or loss” did not make a major significance between smokers and non-smokers (p=0.9614) and so did the message “smoking could cause heart disease” (p=0.9054).
It is clear that the rate of exposure to secondhand smoke for college going students is on the rise. This calls for deeper intervention forums sooner than later to prevent further hazards and to particularly strengthen the awareness among college going students. According to the research, it is clear a good number of non-smoking students are partially aware of the effects of second hand smoke but they have no idea how to avoid contacting SHS. There is therefore need to first erecxt smoking zones in colleges and apply strict measures to smoking students who smoke outside the designated smoke area. Second, there is need to over-emphasize the importance of SHS to non-smoking students. Lastly, there is a need to increase and boost self-efficacy as well as foster positive attitudes if secondhand smoke is to be successfully combated in colleges. It is important that college students and society at large understand the magnitude of second hand smoke. This will indeed play a great role in reinforcing the policy.
Owing, J. H. (2005). Focus on smoking and health research. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Sarna, L. (2009). Annual review of nursing research: :advancing nursing science in tobacco addiction control.