Roy's Adaptation Model has 5 key factors, which refer to nursing, and include a person, goal, activities, health and environments. “The person has 4 modes of adaptation: physiologic needs, self- concept, role function and inter-dependence” (Reed, 2012).
Roy applies her system to an individual, who is composed of elements that together form a whole human being. Additionally, the human being as a complex living system needs to interact with his or her environment. The interaction between two entities usually brings along different exchanges. “To cope with a changing world, person uses both innate and acquired mechanisms which are biological, psychological and social in origin” (Vandemark, 2006). In this model, Roy’s nursing concepts also incorporate sub- concepts.
The theory’s major strengths are as follows: according to Sister Callista Roy, any situation has causes that make influence on the situation. This is seen as strength, since she regards all human beings as bio-psycho-social. Roy presents strong and logical nursing concepts (environment, health, person, goal, and adaptation). Besides, she accurately defines all of those mentioned concepts. Her Adaptation Model meticulously guides nurses to exercise relevant skills that are required when doing an assessment of a person. Lastly, Roy’s model can pragmatically function across different nursing practice settings. The theory’s weaknesses are as follows: since the model is comprehensive, it might require a significant time and effort to use the model. Her nursing theory consists of a number of systems and concepts, which might be hard to view as one and the same entity.
As a Family Nurse Practitioner, I can strive to apply the suggested model as efficiently as possible. However, there might be limitations due to the fact that this model is hard to apply to emergency situations, where quick action from the nurse is a necessity to save the life of patient. As part of essential responsibilities for FNP, I will also focus on the adaptive system. “The person’s adaptation is a function of the stimulus he is exposed to and his adaptation level” (Wills & McEwen, 2002). This concept of adaptation is of a huge professional interest to me to observe and analyze how the coping mechanisms of a person work in the process of adapting.
Reed, P.G. (2012). The force of nursing theory guided- practice. Nurs Sci Q., 19(3):225.
Vandemark, L.M. (2006). Awareness of self and expanding consciousness: Using nursing theories to prepare nurse –therapists. Ment. Health Nurs., 27(6) : 605-15.
Wills, M., E., & McEwen, M. (2002). Theoretical basis for nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.