Torture started in back in the 530AD and where the roman jurists advocated for it believing that it could result in victims revealing facts and truth about something. Demosthenes, the Greek Legal Orator, stated that, “no statements made as a result of torture have ever been proved untrue.” Back in the 12th century, the Roman law officially became an authoritative power in most judicial systems and it introduced use of torture to the convicted individuals. This led to the incorporation of use of torture in the civil law system.
Early in the 4th century, the use of torture faced much criticism from philosophers. Aristotle claimed that, “those under compulsion are as likely to give false evidence as true, some being ready to endure everything rather than tell the truth, while others are really ready to make false charges against others, in the hope of being sooner released from torture.” (Ross, 2005).in the 16th century, the Dutch Lawyer Antonius Mathieu’s said that an innocent person was subjected to bias since his perception in giving out the truth had possibilities of being skewed.
During the 18th century, the civil law system adjusted its tough stand on torture and it did away with the torture provisions that were within the European Legal Codes. Cesare Beccaria worked so hard to ensure that the judicial torture was banned across Europe because of the harm it caused to human beings. He said that torture was a means of convicting innocent’s individuals.
Despite Victor Hugo claiming that torture was not in existence, the media said that the issue was still under practice (Ross, 2005). In the 20th century, most states used torture as a way to protect their countries from insecurity threats and the opponents were forced to face it. In the 1930s, the Stalinist Regime used torture to cause terror amongst the population. The World War 2 had the Nazi Torture Chambers which led to international concern over torture since it undermined human rights. A number of treaties were put into practice but this did not end the inhuman practices and torture is still practiced undercover.
The issue fits in the field of sociology since it’s applicable in the society. Most of the authorities have gone further to induce it to its people and it’s a way of inflicting individual to harsh treatment so that they can reveal certain information that they hold towards a specific issue. The issue fits in the society because most organization are now advocating for respect of human rights (Perl, 2012). The society does not accept the means of torture and it’s opposed by most individuals. Since time immemorial, torture has always been observed despite the harm that it inflicts in the society. The way torture affects the society makes me to conclude that this issue fits in the field of sociology.
The social theory of fear applies to the use of torture in the judicial system. This is because most governments and elites depend on fear so that they can keep the masses on track and under their control. In the modern world, the elites from the most developed countries are using fear so that they can keep away people from crime and terrorism. These fears are used so enforce torture to people who goes against the set rules and government expectations. My social issue is promoted by the social theory of fear because the individuals who are subjected to it will give out information that is required instead of being succumbed to torture that harms their well-being. The existing crisis and rebellion from opposing parties will be put under control by means of torture (Perl, 2012).
There are a lot of values that are associated with sociological research concerning the practice of torture. Through the research, we are able4 to trace how it started up to the current use of torture. We are able to tell how governments have changed their priorities when dealing with the issue. Analysts have demonstrated the trends that are linked torture. The practical implications of the sociological inquiry into the issue is that the organizations concerned with championing for human rights will be alert that the issue is still under practice and this will enable them to put corrective measures to eliminate or reduce the prevalence of the issue.
Many people are well informed about the use of torture. The techniques of torture includes sleep deprivation, foot roasting, tooth extraction, exposure to high pitched sounds, force-feeding, sensory deprivation, mock execution, thumbscrew amongst others ( Kellaway, 2000).Individuals are also aware that it can cause mental problems, injuries, deafness and even death. What most people don’t know about the issue is that it is still under practice despite international laws and treaties going against it. Many think that the issue is not practiced as before but their perception is wrong.
James Ross., (2005).‘A History of Torture’, Torture: A Human Rights Perspective (Human Rights Watch, p. 4; See Roman Digests, De Quaestionibus ‘On Torture’ Book 48, Chapter 18.
Perl, L. (2012). Torture. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.
Kellaway, J. (2000). The history of torture and execution. New York: Lyons Press