The years before and after the Civil war were marked all across the United States with a strongly rooted racism that was affecting not only African Americans but Indian and Chinese citizens as well. Even though the slavery was abolished in the North, there were still ways in which the African Americans were kept in a repressed condition not allowing them to lead lives without fear. The evidences suggest that there were not so many Chinese populations but the strong racial politics was lead against them resulting in their death and prosecution. On the other hand, the ways that were used to narrow down the Indians can be described as ethnical cleansing.
The position of African Americans was far more difficult in the North. Even though they were not regarded as slaves, everything was done in order for them to be segregated. African Americans had to use separated seats in every means of transportation, they were not allowed to enter the churches that were reserved to white colored Americans. Furthermore, some of the worst instances of "racial violence occurred in the Northern cities" ("Beyond Dixie: A White Nation" 121). In 1863, during the riots in New York, 105 lives of African American were taken , in 1871 in Philadelphia, four deaths of African Americans were recorded ("Beyond Dixie: A White Nation" 121). The Midwest of America was even harsher in the racial prejudices towards African Americans. The fact that the slavery was abolished only agitated its white population and after 1890 many municipalities in the Midwest introduced a "sundown law" that forbade African Americans to enter cities after sundown.
Apart from African Americans, Mexicans, Indians, and Chinese were also prosecuted and segregated near the end of the nineteenth century, mainly in California. Chinese were prosecuted on racial basis and locals regarded them as people who spread diseases and were called "coolies". The import of Chinese immigrants was limited to 305 citizens in the entire USA. As far as Indians were concerned, the state politics towards Indians was that they imposed a great threat. A person who advocated anti-Indian racism, General Philip Sheridan was responsible for destroying buffalo herds that were essential for Indian lifestyle. After the civil war, the areas on which Indians had lived were settled with American population and the land intended for Indians was greatly reduced. The example of savage ethnical cleansing is the destroying the entire Indian village near Sand Creek under the commandment of Colonel John Chivington. His troop killed all the village's inhabitants, mainly children and women. Indians and their lifestyle were considered as an obstacle for emancipation of Colorado and the authorities did not choose the means to eliminate its population.
The West was also not saved from racial prejudices, prosecutions and murders of the African Americans near the end of the nineteenth century. In 1866, in Memphis, riots against Buffalo Soldiers were organized because they were mainly African American soldiers and the citizens felt intimidated from the soldiers. That is why they were moved to West. This serves as an example of institutional racism. The famous singer Bob Marley revealed though his song the bigger picture that lied behind the Buffalo Soldiers who even though sacrificed their life and were loyal did not manage to escape from widespread racial prosecution. Based on these examples, it may be concluded that the minorities that were in the way of industrial revolution and emancipation were prosecuted and destroyed in every part of America. The ways in which this was done were politically justified and the white population had their support.
"Beyond Dixie: A White Nation"