Philosophical claims and explanations present a frame of thought as well as a discipline that is inclined towards a wonderment of the fundamental dynamics of life and the world as a whole. Philosophical explanations focus on both activity and content. This method is mostly based on reflection on questions about the human nature and the society as a whole. Alternative opinions are also respected and taken under deep consideration in this method.
Scientific claims are claims that are firmly hinged on evidence. For a claim to be considered as scientific, it must have significant backing in terms of proof. Scientific claims are considered to present the truth as it is in an unbiased and raw form. As a result, any contrary opinion is evenly scrutinized in an attempt to establish its validity based on the evidence backing it.
Religious claims are claims that depend on nothing more than faith. These are claims that hinge their significance in society in the belief of the existence of deities and higher powers far above the comprehension of human understanding. These claims do not need any form of evidence but rather are believed and upheld as true based on faith alone.
Speculative claims refer to the curiosity that human beings have about the world. These speculative claims are hinged on understanding the world as being natural and not supernatural. Thus, this is a frame of thought that is inclined towards curiosity and the need to gain a clear and plausible understanding of human nature, as well as the universe.
An example of speculative thinking in pre Socratic society was the questions that existed as to exactly what the universe was made of and how it worked. This is speculative because it involved people striving to understand the universe in the natural realm, as opposed to the supernatural realm. Another example of speculative thinking in modern times is the curiosity that exists in the world of medicine and the need to understand the dynamics of each disease.
Religious thinking existed in pre-Socratic society and was characterized by belief in the Greek gods. These Greek gods were believed to be in charge of phenomena that man could not explain at the time, for example lightning and the monthly cycles of the moon. In modern times, an example of religious thinking can be embodied by the various religious factions in the world today for example Islam, Jews and Buddhism.
Philosophical thinking did exist in pre-Socratic society. An example is the Milesian school. Members of this frame of thought include Thales who declared that water was the base of all things. Modern examples of philosophical thought include the civil rights movement and the notion of equality of al men.
Scientific thinking in pre-Socratic society comprised mostly of queries about the universe.an example is the notion that the gods created the entire universe. The scientific thinkers back then would pose questions like exactly what did the gods use to create the universe and what was the origin of the gods themselves. The posed questions that the epic tales back at the time could not answer thus prompting the need to search for evidence behind every claim.
Materialism is a theory in philosophy that states that all aspects of existence are based on matter. This means that everything in existence is made of a certain material. Even the human consciousness is believed to be made up of a given tangible material.
Determinism is the philosophical thought that every action is determined by a given previous action. The present action in turn will also give rise to future action which may or may not be related to it at all. Determinism should not be confused with human self-determination that is guided by specific reasons.
Reductionism is a philosophical theory that even the most complex aspects can be broken down to simpler aspects. This means that everything in existence can be broken down to its individual parts. Even theories can be broken down into simpler singular units.
Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes from nothing more than sensory experience. Everything that is considered as knowledge has to be first of all perceived. This perception is primarily attributed to the human senses.
An example of materialism in pre Socratic society was the study of the celestial bodies. People had little knowledge about these bodies, but they theorized that the bodies were made of matter just like everything that is present on earth and in their proximity. In contemporary thinking materialism is expressed in the notion that matter is the building block of life. It is widely believed that everything in existence today is based on matter.
Reductionism in pre-Socratic society can be attributed to the questions that were raised about the gods. These questions included how the gods came into existence and how they created the universe. Thus, the complex topic that is the universe was broken down. In contemporary society reductionism is incorporated in the technological field where small items are used to make massive machinery.
Determinism in pre-Socratic society can be thought of in the context of the people wondering what caused things to be as they were. An example is the cycle of the moon and queries about why this was and exactly what determined the exact shape that the moon would take at a given time of the month. In contemporary society determinism is applied in medicine. This is because every disease has its causative factor and every medicine has side effects.
Empiricism in pre-Socratic society attributed to disbelief in the existence of the gods. This is because the gods could not be perceived by man hence their existence came into question. In modern times, an example of empiricism is modern science. In modern science evidence must be provided, and this evidence must be perceived.