The first article majorly focuses on the factors that lead to the lengthening of the duration of the civil war between the government and the rebel protagonists. Many factors are taken into account. This paper is based on the religious and spiritual factors that influence the decision making of a legislator. It majorly emphasizes on the facts that the religious belief of the legislator, the religious credence of the citizens and the spiritual views of the board of the legislator mainly influence the decision making regarding the state. It also focuses on the transition towards democracy, its sustainability and importance in post-civil war countries and states. According to the author the transition may take place but in order to make the transition successful enough certain necessary steps will have to be taken. The deforestation and its importance globally are also discussed in this paper. Though many people are against it yet the author has given the example of Amazonia, Brazil that how this place took steps for industrialization and convinced landholders to alter their occupations. In order to take into account why deforestation is being done all over the world, the author has written this article by specifically focusing on the land of Amazonia, Brazil. The paper discusses the fact that no matter how strong the center or the capital of a state is, civil war will continue for a long time due to a number of factors if the locations of the insurgents are located far away from the capital and are near the medium capacity states.
The first article majorly focuses on the factors that lead to the lengthening of the duration of the civil war between the government and the rebel protagonists. Many factors are taken into account. There are three chief groups that are the incorporated by civil wars and these constitute of the current legislation, the revolutionists or agitators and the peripheral actors who will intrude if an internal clash will begin to take place between the former two groups at any peculiar time. The time period of the internal war can prove to be longer if the distance between the capital of the state and backcountry areas is longer and if the insurgents are near the international border. The former cause causes the internal war to prolong due to the inability of the political and legislative center to take efficient actions due to long distances. The latter cause’s contribution in increasing the time period of war is due to the fact that it becomes quite easy for the terrorists to flee to the neighboring country if their locations are near the international border and thus the government faces difficulties in controlling them. Another reason behind the extension of internal civil wars is the presence of coarse territories heavily loaded with mountains and forests that can definitely serve as protection for the rebels. Nevertheless some authors also suggest that there is a vice versa relationship between the civil war time period and the rate to which the territories of a country are coarse. The fourth reason that results in a prolonged civil war is the increase in weakness rate of the insurgents. This is so because the sooner the rebellious party will come to a peaceful settlement or take over the state the sooner the internal civil war will come to an end. On the contrary a weaker revolutionist party will be too afraid and inefficient in terms of compelling the government to make a peaceful clearance with them. Thus the stronger the insurgents the lesser the time course of the internal civil war and vice versa. Last but not least if the location of the insurgents is near such areas of the country that are rich in natural and economic resources, definitely this advantage will prove as an opportunity for them to benefit themselves financially and economically. Thus the civil war will not come to an end too easily because in such a scenario the rebels will neither think of making a peaceful settlement nor cease the war soon as they will be strong enough to maintain their positions. Several tools, techniques and measures have been devised in order to gauge all the possible reasons that can bring out the consequences in the shape of prolonged civil wars and organize remedies in order to cope with them. The time duration of the internal civil war is treated as a dependent variable whereas all the possible causes whether the above explained or any other are taken as the independent variables. Geodesic measure, self-organizing maps and event history analysis are the measures and tools to calculate distance between insurgents’ area and governmental center of the state, analyses the hidden arrays in the calculated data and compute duration between the events that can take place in the war respectively. Kohonen maps, product moment correlations and weibull and cox proportional hazard regression models can serve for the same purposes but in a more explanatory and explicit way.
The second article is based on the religious and spiritual factors that influence the decision making of a legislator. It majorly emphasizes on the facts that the religious belief of the legislator, the religious credence of the citizens and the spiritual views of the board of the legislator mainly influence the decision making regarding the state. According to many studies carried out by various scholars, religion and spiritual factors do have an influence on the politics and legislation of a particular country or state. Some of the researchers have emphasized on the fact that how the legislative decisions or steps taken by governmental leaders of the particular state or country are influenced by their peculiar beliefs or religious sentiments. Some of the scholars on the other hand have studied in detail and provided a comprehensive view of how the religious beliefs or credence of the citizens can have an effect on the decision making of the government. While many other researchers have taken into account systematically the combined effect of the religious contents of the legislative leaders as well as the citizens or the voters on the decisions about the country or state. The voting behavior of the citizens can undergo variations according to the religious attributes of not only the legislator itself but his or her locality as well. Nevertheless a major area of concern that is the board of members of the legislator still has not been taken under consideration as it can also be influenced by the religious characteristics of the legislator. There are two major political parties in the United States of America i-e Republican Party and Democratic Party. Though the committee assignment is influenced according to the motivations of the legislators of both parties yet the motivations are not the same and definitely vary. The former party has transferred the decision making and approval authorities to only the senior leaders and eradicated the other junior leaders’ participation in devising a decision. Whereas on the contrary the latter party frequently involves all the leaders, whether senior or any other, in the decisions related to assignments. Now in order to study the result of religion on the parties the author has taken into account the “conservative Christians” and their influence on the parties’ decision making. The assignment or decision is taken as the dependent variable while the religion of legislator, religion of citizens and religion of the board members are taken as independent variables. According to the author if the conservative Christians are in an increasingly immense number in a state, the Republican senator will be selected. The results reveal that the prediction of the author was true and there exists a positive relationship between the rate of increase in the possibility of the appointment of a Republican senator and the increasing rate of conservative Christians in the state. Secondly the author was of the view point that as much as the appointed senator would utilize Christian laws and develop related rights, the more there would be a positive and solid interaction level between the conservative Christian citizens and the Republican Party. This view point also came out to be true after testing it. Last but not least it was stated that there would be a more interaction level between the citizens and the freshman.
The third article is about the transition towards democracy, its sustainability and importance in post-civil war countries and states. According to the author the transition may take place but in order to make the transition successful enough certain necessary steps will have to be taken. This article specifically emphasizes upon the fact that in various states and countries where civil war has taken place, the “transition towards democracy” is taking place. Nevertheless this transition is not perceived as an easy one and many obstacles are professed to be present in its way which can make the transition challenging enough to be done. After the civil wars certain mandatory attributes that are required to be present in order to make the transition or even sustain the democratic environment are not found in the state or country. The real question raised by the author incorporates the issue of how the TTD can be retained in a successful and progressive manner if it takes place in any state or country post the internal civil war. The conditions after the civil wars can be intense and thus the TTD process can be vulnerable to failure. Thus in order to see how the process can be made successful and progressive certain ways or methods will have to be devised in order to achieve the desired outcome. Sometimes the rivals in the state may not be influenced by the idea of post-civil war TTD. This will be so because the decision computation methods will not be efficient enough to motivate the rivals to make a peaceful settlement regarding the sustainability of transitioned democratic environment of the state. According to the author a proportional representation electoral system can prove more efficient in terms of increasing the probability of TTD. This process assists in organizing incentives for the rivals thus convincing them in ceasing the war and ensuring democratic environment. Now in order to retain a democratic environment it is mandatory that formal motivations are available so that democracy may not be negatively affected at all. Now for this purpose a state will have to choose between two major forms of governments that are parliamentary and presidential respectively. In the former system the legislation must secure the majority number of seats in the legislature whereas the latter form of government can be referred to as that particular system in which distinct election of the president takes place and majority backing is not at all essential. According to the author the parliamentary system can be more effective as compared to the presidential system because the former system will not give the overall authority to a single person nonetheless if the legislation will be able to get maximum support from the legislature. Giving authority in one particular person’s hands can increase the risk of marginalization. Thus in this study if we talk about the dependent variable it will be the stability of Transition towards Democracy and independent variables will be PR electoral systems, parliamentary system and presidential system. Whereas certain other factors such as war duration and battle deaths, UN missions, population pressures and ethnicity are treated as particular control variables that may not have a direct influence on the dependent variable but cannot be ignored as well. Thus peaceful situations in a state can be achieved if the above mentioned prospects are taken into consideration.
The fourth article is related to deforestation and its importance globally. Though many people are against it yet the author has given the example of Amazonia, Brazil that how this place took steps for industrialization and convinced landholders to alter their occupations. In order to take into account why deforestation is being done all over the world, the author has written this article by specifically focusing on the land of Amazonia, Brazil. In order to make the states or countries industrialized enough to increase their economy. The governments of these countries or states have formulated certain policies in order to promote industrialization for the betterment of the state or country. Nevertheless where deforestation benefited the country it also caused certain disadvantages. The government devised certain policies in order to build roads in the country or state for the matter of ease of transportation which is very essential whether it is concerned with daily needs or business matters. Such governmental constructions will contribute to the economy of the state in the end as they will prove useful and will benefit not only the citizens but the state as a whole. Moreover further industrial purposes that cause deforestation include the erection of industrial buildings like companies or malls etc. All of these steps are taken under socioeconomic purposes. The same sort of socioeconomic steps were taken in the land of Amazonia in Brazil which led to a conflict related to land. All the local farmers raised a land war and refused to corporate with the government and didn’t want to give their lands to them for industrial development. Land science treatment is a method used in order to make decisions regarding lands however sometimes it becomes quite challenging to obtain appropriate information and knowledge regarding particular lands. Moreover the researchers have stated that the landholders were presented with alternate occupations. Some of them responded positively while the others got quite despised. Some of the small landholders altered their occupations while the large landholders did not want to make any alternate changes. Factors such as closeness to towns ease of access to highways and such like facilities provoke them to alter their occupations which reveal the fact that minor facilities like ease of use of water or worthy quality soil will not at all convince them to do so. One of the factors that majorly contributed to the hazard of occupation was the presence of at least ten percent of tree covering mass in a certain area. SDSS is such a process that can definitely assist in making the decisions regarding land change science. Certain changes need to take place in a state or country and deforestation has to take place however it should also take place to a certain limited extent as it can also have harmful effects. In this study the occupation was taken as the dependent variable and other factors such as forest density, closeness to towns and ease of access to highways etc. were taken as independent variables.
The article discusses the fact that no matter how strong the center or the capital of a state is, civil war will continue for a long time due to a number of factors if the locations of the insurgents are located far away from the capital and are near the medium capacity states. Thus the author has emphasized on why long term civil wars continue in medium capacity states. The article focuses on the fact that why are those states or countries that are capable and efficient enough in areas like military and governance have some of the longest civil wars. If they are proficient and resourceful enough, what stops them from making the rebels to cease the civil war or what are the hurdles that they have to face in bringing the civil war to an end as soon as possible despite the fact that they are very strong. There are a couple of factors that contribute towards the prolonging of the civil war no matter how strong and efficient the legislation of a country or state is. One such factor is the presentation of such a negotiation to the rebels that lacks certain equality that may provoke the insurgents to continue the war. Another factor is the issues that can arise regarding commitment between the insurgents and the government. There may appear certain sort of opportunities that can benefit the rebels in certain ways that may aggravate them to keep on benefiting themselves from the profits that they are achieving and thus they will not end the war no matter what the position of the government will be. The insurgents will definitely want the civil war to be continued if they will not face any sort of threat from the central legislation of the state or the country. Nevertheless medium capacity state which will be located closer to their location will not be that much capable to fight with them as the legislation in the capital would be. So the rebels deliberately limit their activities up to a certain extent so that the capital legislation may not get affected because then if the capital will not see any major threat it will not at make any sort of governmental or military investments to stop them because the investment will be huge as compared to the profits which can be bad for the economy of the country. Therefore the civil war in medium capacity states will prolong obviously. Now definitely it would be quite easier and less costly to deal with one conflict as compared to numerous numbers of conflicts. Therefore such a medium capacity state where conflicts are multiple will have to face a long duration insurgency. Some insurgents get located in certain areas that are not vital for the capital of the state whether strategies are concerned or elections. Thus the ethnic groups in such areas are not taken into account seriously and thus they continue the war for a longer time in the medium capacity states as compared to those areas that are looked into by the capital. Moreover when such areas are ignored then the level of violence is also kept low by the insurgents in those areas as compared to those regions which are approached by the government. The duration of civil war is taken as the dependent variable whereas the other factors as the sons of soil and electoral importance of region etc. are taken as independent variables.
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