The government of the United States is a federal system of administration with the national and state governments existing independently of each other in the same territory, while controlling the individuals as citizens of both the state and the nation. The states have separate sub-jurisdictions, such as cities, counties, municipalities, townships and special districts, which are independent of the state. The federal government exists in the constitutional, political, fiscal and administrative dimensions. The political parties of America are the Democratic Party, Republican Party, Libertarian, Constitution, Socialist, Green party and many others. Independent candidates and third parties are also a part of the American politics. The Americans elect the President and the vice president for a term of four years. There are 435 members of the House of Representatives elected for a term of two years. The primary elections determine the candidates for the general elections. The general elections determine the leaders to hold the office. American politics have the most important characteristics as liberty, democracy, equality, rule of law, capitalism, nationalism and individualism.
On the other hand, the Spanish government is a monarchy controlled by the Constitution. The monarch is the head of the nation and is responsible for the ratification of the laws, dissolution of the legislature and proposing the prime minister post-approval by the legislature. The executive consists of the Prime Minister, deputy prime minister and the members of the Cabinet. A no-confidence vote by the Congress of Deputies can dismiss a Prime Minister. The country employs a bicameral legislature with a lower house called the Congress of Deputies and an upper house called the Senate. There are 350 members in the Congress of Deputies elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years and 259 Senates. While 208 of the 259 senates are direct selectees, the regional legislatures appoint the rest of them. Spain has 17 autonomous communities with two autonomous cities. The major political parties of Spain are People’s Party, Communist Party of Spain, Spanish Socialist Worker’s Party, United Left, Republican Left, Basque Nationalist Party, Catalan Socialist Party and many others. Spain was unstable in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries with the assassination of three Prime ministers, the Civil War and a 36 year-long dictatorship under General Francisco Franco. After Franco’s death, the monarchy restored the political transition with the approval of the Constitution putting an end to the dictatorial regime.
In the case of Portugal, it is a democratic republic form of government post 1974 after a significant transformation from the authoritarian regime of Salazar. Portugal has a President elected by universal suffrage for a term of five years and up to two consecutive terms. The Prime minister heads the Council of Ministers and is responsible for the parliament. The parliament consists of 230 deputies with a term of four years. There are three tiers of government below the national level, which consist of the parishes, municipalities and municipal chambers. The political parties in the Portugal government are Portuguese Communist Party, Socialist Party, Popular Party, Social Democrat Party, Social Democratic Centre - People's Party, Left Alliance, Popular Monarchist Party, ‘Green’ Ecology Party and many others. There are 22 electoral districts in Portugal with 18 in continental Portugal and four autonomous regions, in which three lie in the Azores and the other one in Madeira. The autonomous regions have an appointed civil governor.