Models include the main key elements of the system, around which are the most active communication and which define development. Roger Kaufman's Organizational Elements Model (OEM) implies the need to keep pace with internal and external environment, and their reflections on the process of action of the organization. Changing the external environment should be constantly monitored, then refined and changed functions of the individual elements, subsystems, for a given level of performance objectives of the organization. A huge arsenal of modern methods, approaches, concepts, improve the management processes (planning, coordination, monitoring and the like; study and choice of solutions, information processes, innovation processes, and the like) is used for solving various problems of formation and perfection of organizational systems. Often, through the composition of organizational processes formed the main features of the management structure of the educational process.
Description how to change the educational process (including the review of existing models) in elementary school (evaluation system, forms of organization of training sessions, individualization of educational programs), is aimed at:
· Maintenance of the educational initiative of the child;
· Training in communication skills, cooperation;
· Broaden the experience of self-selection;
· Formation of educational autonomy.
Specificity of OEM approach has rational direct impact, especially on the technology of organizational processes, and this differs from the problem of synthesis of structure of the educational process and the task of "organizational change", which are found leverage indirect effects on the processes of behavior. The greatest development of OEM approach gets in improving technology planning and decision making, especially on the basis of modern economic and mathematical methods. This creates a specialized management process chain, that is interconnected sequence of processes that convert to the final output (result) process, which is not passed on in any other learning process.
The OEM has is a contradiction between the way a child perceives the world holistically, and rigid division of the educational process to individual objects and classes. The more formalized in this sense, the learning process, the greater the gap between them and the child, his life. This creates problems with motivation, reduced cognitive interest, unwillingness to apply disparate substantive skills in real-life situations. Narrow frame obstructs the work on the development of generic skills. The desire to get rid of substantive framework to make the educational process more holistic, diverse leads to the abandonment of the lesson as the basic unit of this process. Along with a lesson there other educational forms, extracurricular classes, educational travel and games, workshops and so on.
Organizational Elements Model in the learning process can be conventionally called a holistic life. In this model cognitive activities and games of different types and forms of owls-seater unfolding in the process of resolving the problems really arise in the life of a group of children, conditionally accepted in a game or to meet the children's interest. One possible form of life is the realization of an integrated children's and adult project, which involves students, teachers and parents. The project, understood in this way, there is a field for the emergence of situations like the educational objective plan. These projects can be initiated by both teachers and children. In such an integral part of the educational model is inextricably linked to the training. Today, OEM did not developed and methods of the pedagogical (educational) integration, there is no federal regulatory framework governing economic and organizational issues of integration. As disadvantage of theory some researchers mention that the possible loss of a child from special education services and reducing the effectiveness of correctional and pedagogical work with him. Thus, the attitude towards OEM can be ambiguous (Wenger). However, the main support is carried out within the institution, and somewhere the main emphasis is to work with the child, integrated environment in normally developing classmates somewhere focuses on the support of the teachers working with the child.
OEM can use several forms of outcome in education process:
The process of socialization is a mechanism by which society encourages its members to act in accordance with generally accepted standards. As part of the problems of socialization Bandura regards the formation of an aggressive social behavior and self-control. However digestion model does not mean the implementation behavior. Contact learning and performance depend on such reinforcements as rewards and punishments. Any form of assessment shall comply with the following principles:
- Openness (for students, teachers and parents should be understood that estimated in a particular case, should be visible promotion and "point of tension" in the student, children should be able to take part in you-processing criteria and methods of evaluation );
- Security (assessment should not be "punitive" consequences, assessed student work, not his identity);
- The adequacy and differentiation (assessment must comply with the form and content of the work, estimated by-sensible elements of work that make up the whole);
Monitoring (evaluation carried out in a way that allows you to see the dynamics of the learning process).
The results of all educational services are estimated by indicators of the fulfillment of their goals and objectives. Accordingly, construction and system of incentives and promotion of employees. The advantage of OEM approach is that the inclusion of a child among their peers occurs in the course of joint activities (games or training, communication or cognitive), which unites children, aimed at achieving a certain goal. In this approach, there is the principle of unification of procedures: performed by employees of different operations are integrated into one, that is there is a horizontal compression process. If it is impossible to bring all process steps in one operation, the school should create a team responsible for this process. At the same goals and motives of the children with different levels of mental and physical development in the general area of study or games may be different. Focusing on leading activity age account sensitive periods in the development of higher mental functions, the timely formation of typical children's activities and their relationship with the mental age neoplasms are the basis that allows specially prepared to carry out a targeted adult education and training of children with different abilities (Elkjaer).
So OEM is a holistic way of description of the competence-oriented educational process. The model defines the key characteristics of the educational process. A key outcome of OEM in education implies the ability of the student at the time of completion of education to act independently and responsibly in dealing with educational and practical tasks. This ability can be described as educational and practical initiative. Teaching practical amateur implies the ability to act purposefully, independently and responsibly to resolve the situation of educational and practical problems.
Akers, Ronald L. Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Transaction Publishers, 2011.
Bandura, Albert. "Social learning theory." (1977): 305-316.
Elkjaer, Bente. "In search of a social learning theory." Organizational learning and the learning organization: Developments in theory and practice (1999): 75-91.
Wenger, Etienne. "Communities of practice and social learning systems." Organization 7.2 (2000): 225-246.