Ia)Short XX century was a historical period , which lasted , according to precipitated British Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm , from 1914 to 1991. In the beginning of this period was the First World War, which resulted in liquidated German, Russian , Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires , and end - collapse of the USSR . It was the onset of total war , the Russian Revolution , the Great Depression, the decline of liberalism and the rise of dictatorships , combining anti-fascist forces in World War II , decolonization and the end of empires , the "golden era" of post-war recovery and the subsequent period of economic crisis , the development of third world countries, the emergence and collapse of the socialist system.
Nevertheless, I believe that it is now possible to look at the "short twentieth century ", thru lenses of war history, which lasted from 1914(World War I), until 1999( NATO bombed Yugoslavia) , in a certain historical perspective. However, we must turn to this issue without the knowledge of the scientific literature, except for a small number of archival sources, collected by historians of the twentieth century, of which there is a huge amount.
Without a doubt, a historian is impossible to know all the historiography of the twentieth century, now. It is impossible to write the history in a period shortly after. My knowledge in this area in comparison with the norms of historical erudition is shallow and disconnected. I would like to refer to the writers that wrote magnificent work on this subject, Jeremy Black, who wrote in his book``War and the World: Military Power and the Fate of Continents, 1450-
2000`` a magnificent research regarding this subject.
His approach to the entire modern era from a comprehensive global perspective is extraordinary. He delivers a extensive interpretation of the nature, philosophy and practice of war over the past seventy years, and argues the significance of inspecting the rise of European power inside a broader worldwide context. Inspecting both, land and sea combat Black studies artillery, maneuvers, tactic, and resources as well as the dogmatic, public, and ethnic influence of war.
Ib) It is true that many of the economic and social structure has changed during these wars . I'd like to deal with the Second World War . Izmajući in mind that the Jews constituted the aristocratic class in Europe, their losses are incalculable. They lost thousands of lives , estates and material goods during World War II . Terrible persecution of the Jews and many other aristocrats had devastating consequences . Still not clear when Germany began to strengthen in order to get to the point that it can compete with the world powers . Nazism was strengthened during the 20th century , very quietly and smoothly. pro -Nazi countries strengthened their economy , while other European countries struggling with a variety of internal issues . In this way, Nazism and the opportunity for the destruction of not only the state but also the whole socilano political system . War as a war brings , and the consequences of the war remain forever , as long as a country was strong .
On the other hand, in the First World War we have a traditional country that resist the Ottomans for centuries and can be said to be willing to expand into the Balkans . I say better prepared in terms of the prior expected from such a state to create chaos, but from Germany, which had quietly developed . However, the association of the Balkan nations and patriotism, wars waged against the Ottomans for centuries , that's what he ended the war. The First World War is remembered as a war hero , where both sides fought heroically , and many participants in the war , who are still alive , bore witness to the courage of the enemy side.
In contrast to these claims , the people who lived , for the second world war say nothing heroic , nothing human . This war is driven by delusions not to conquer, but to destruction and the creation of a new Arial race. Arial race is the race of pure European white people who cannot tolerate people different to them . Hitler wanted at all costs to destroy all who stood in his way to do it. Setting his ideas to the Jews , their status in society and the inability of decay ( eternal people ) , decided to exterminate them from the face of the earth various camps , executions , starvation . The way in which people are dying in this war say enough about the sick mind who led the war. Thus , wars may weaken the economy , wars will certainly disrupt the social structure states , however , the most important is who wage war , what the idea behind the first attack .
II Culture in past WWI years
Twentieth century in art begins with the avant-garde manifestos of various trends , groups, schools . They claimed that they refuse to tradition, from classical artistic excellence was in crisis. Avant-garde art has sought to open new means of expression, to the approval of the new truth, perhaps unfathomable , strange inhabitants for the crowd , but clear for the artist. Such a trend in the art of XX century usually denoted by the term "modernism" - the common name trends of art and literature of late XIX - early XX century. Broadly covers Cubism , Dadaism , surrealism , futurism , expressionism , abstract art , functionalism , etc. , i.e. all the avant-garde direction, traditionalism opposed themselves as the only true " modern art ."
Modernist writers especially accurately reflected the crisis in the life of modern society they convey a sense of powerlessness in the face of a frightening man its absurdity of the world , expressing a sense of melancholy loneliness doomed artist, who was called " the abyss , invisible to others. In modernist art world dominated by bleak premonitions end expectations of imminent death, even the death of the will. But, as the B.L. Pasternak novel "Doctor Zhivago ",“ art relentlessly thinking about death and relentlessly creates this life".
Picture of doom in the world of modernist works complement the image of the future updates, joyful meeting with the new era of human goodwill, harmony, truth and beauty. It is not coincidence that many modernists hailed the revolutionary events in Russia and other countries have appealed to the cleaning „storm uprising" that can destroy the „full world" bourgeois. Meanwhile utopia actually carried out during the revolutions and civil wars, turned horror of totalitarianism: the concentration camps , the physical destruction of unwanted , endless humiliation personality and impunity of power.
Totalitarianism spawned monstrous phenomenon of conformist, obsequious literature ( and art in general ) , when the book became the spiritual tools of manipulation and writers boasted that "never deviated from the party line ." Fear of authority demonized soul. Thus, in philology of twentieth century, there is an urgent problem of defining literature, which can rightly be called " high art " that can encompass the "criticism of the existing order of things , a picture of how it could be improved , and a call to humanity " and thus " never goes to conformism and humility ". Differentiation of" high „literature and books, created by the „social order " is complicated in the XX century .
Some researchers even speaks of sunset literary civilization, the transition towards mass culture , where art is not a mentor but entertainment ; about the mass produced book, which has a definite place in a number of other producers and products (C. Leavis ) , in the absence of modern mass culture to high art inherent aura of authenticity, personality , sincerity ( Walter Benjamin ) .
Another problem understanding the literary process in XX century is a need for a new approach to its classification. Traditional Euro centrism plays out in the middle of the century, in the period of decolonization. In the former colonies of European and North American literary life activated, appear bright original writers born national literature, capable of competing with the development of literature in Europe and the U.S. (an example is the huge popularity of Latin American writers of the twentieth century).
IIb) To prove the cultural and social changes that followed the war , I would have to take the example of communism . Communism arose from the army of partisans , as the idea of a classless society in many places in Europe and Asia. Communism brings anti-religious beliefs , different social prohibition , prohibition of the taking of human rights and to fight to market. All this has strengthened the economy of the countries , but at the expense of an aristocrat . After the terrible Nazism , the country I had been recovered completely new idea of communism . Communism is in many ways hurt the social ladder . For example , a small country which is itself taken over communism . Usually several countries gathered in one , a new state -rounded communism . This led to giving resources of the most powerful country in the weakest , leaving catastrophic consequences .
III Reading texts by Shaw, Rasor & Bauman , I have to agree that the philosophy of war changed a lot compared to the last century . Possibility is that the people and the states, are exhausted by wars in the last century. I also believe that an enormous, world wars are impossible until the process of stagnation is complete. I think that after every war, depending on its size, weight and loss, there must be a period of stagnation. It is not natural that all states are constantly at war, and even less to be in peace for a long time. I do not think that the states are not able to fight; I think that people are exhausted from the effects of war. The wars that took place in the 20th century were exhausted not only World War Member States but also the entire world. In addition, the cold war between the U.S. and SSSR made many countries deciding on this kind of hostility, while examining the enemy closely. The bad thing is that it actually has increasingly been gaining momentum. Moreover , current trends also lead us to the fact that in the XXI century a large part of the population may well see their only chance for the future is to fight and win the war. Deterioration of environment, energy , leading , for example, water shortages , increasing desertification and rising sea levels , increasing global inequality in the distribution of consumer goods The education and living conditions , an imbalance in the rate of population growth, and the associated wave of migration ; instability of international financial markets and reduced ability of States to regulate its own currency and economy. Finally, in some parts of the world, the rapid disintegration of states - all this provides sufficient grounds to assume that many people from plain violent change, not the peaceful development, is the best opportunity to assure their future.
In addition, despite the fact that U.S. is member state in any war, wherever there is a war zone , riots which hit the entire North Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe show a bit of an entirely new type of war . The states had these wars with themselves, with its rebels. In most cases, there is a revolution in one country and then other countries joined for this or that regime, with the aim of ``human rights`` . Therefore, the wars fought in the 21 century are tacit and partly revolutionary wars, as in contrary to wars battled in the past century.
Black, Jeremy. War and the World: Military Power and the Fate of Continents, 1450-2000. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, 1998. Print.
Kinzer, Stephen. Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq. New York: Times Books/Henry Holt, 2006. Print.
Kinzer, Stephen. Crescent and Star: Turkey between Two Worlds. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001. Print.
Rasor, Dina, and Robert Bauman. Betraying Our Troops: The Destructive Results of Privatizing War. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. Print.
Shaw, Martin. The New Western Way of War: Risk-transfer War and Its Crisis in Iraq. Cambridge: Polity, 2005. Print.