There are numerous methods used to measure the distance of universal bodies that lie in space. Various geometrical and cosmological characteristics are in the formulation of these measurement methods. The parallax as one of the methods is built on the principle that a difference in angles of objects as viewed by the natural eye is a factor of distance. For instance, taking the eye as the baseline and trying to find out the distance of an object directly a distance away can give different values depending on which eye one uses in viewing the object. This is made possible by the proximity of the right eye with respect to the left eye. Given that the stars are far in space and appear even smaller from the earth, measuring their distance would require a baseline with a wider angle.
Additionally, spectroscopy is another method that is used to measure distance of bodies in space. For stars that are further away and determining their parallax, would give an unrealistic value, spectroscopy is used. Fundamentally, this method takes advantage of the inverse-square-law. In this context, the brightness of a specific star, for instance, is compared with the brightness of a gauge object on earth whose distance from the point of view is known. Through this principle, the distance of objects can be estimated. Additionally, the Cosmological redshift can be used as a method for determining the distance of objects in space. As a result of the Doppler Effect, wavelengths and shifts of illuminated bodies can be calculated with respect to their direction of movement. A red light shows movement away from the earth, and blue light means a movement towards the earth. Therefore, manipulation of these movements can be used in determining the distance of objects from space.
Various theories have been brought up to explain how the sun was formed. It is believed that the sun first formed as a large cloud situated millions of kilometers from the earth and believed to comprise of hydrogen and dust. This cloud was known a Nebular (derived from the Nebular Theory). From the nebular, different clusters separated and developed their own gravitational characteristics and are believed to have formed the other bodies that revolve around the sun. From this theory, it is believed that these particles revolved to form hot balls of gas that revolved around a common axis. Therefore, these gas balls tend to compress towards the centre of the nebular but the compact forces within the center repel them away which explains the infra-red emissions experienced on the surface of the earth. This, this theory relies on massive condensation of the nebular.
The collapsing of a massive star can cause nuclear fusion. This fusion is characterized by gathering of materials from other stars or bodies in proximity with the collapsing star. This structure emits large amounts of luminous radiations of light that might even outshine the sun’s illumination. This is termed as a Supanova. However, the existence of this structure is short-lived due to lack of material balance within its components. Therefore, its existence would be visible to the earth in two to three days only.
The Theory of Everything (TOE) can be described as a collection of theoretical principles that are based on physical characteristics of the universe. Further, it is used in describing or explaining the origin of virtually all aspects of the universe. Fundamentally, this theory combines the principles of General Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics. It can be described as a unified framework of a number of theories each of which is influential in explaining one or more aspects of the universe. With respect to Quantum Mechanics, the principle revolves around three non-gravitational forces which more-or-less give a molecular explanation for the various forms exhibited by the universe. These forces can be used in distinct or collective cases to explain the various forms of bodies in space. Variations in the intensities of these forces contribute to the diversity of size and matter that are a characteristic of bodies in the universe.
With respect to matter/energy, the universe is believed to be divided among baryonic, non-baryonic matter and dark energy. It is believed that baryonic matter comprises of virtually 4-5 percent of the earth’s density. It is believed that dark matter cannot be seen but exists only in terms of the gravitational effect that it is perceived to exhibit. However, baryonic matter can be observed in the form of brown and white dwarfs as well as other stellar remnants. Essentially, baryonic matter can be described to include all forms of matter. Contrary to this, non-baryonic matter is not composed of normal physical matter; they are manifested in the form of free electrons. Cosmological studies give perceived proportions of each of these forms of matter from which the universe is characterized. Non-Baryonic, non-baryonic matter occupies 74%, baryonic 4%, and dark matter 22% in terms of their composition in the universe.