Mutation in tomatoes
Mutations are alternations in the genetic codes that lead to the difference in the traits arising. They can either be gained or lost. The main concern is on the plant mutations specifically the Tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculent), and Cr (Colorless) none is ripening, commonly known as the ripening mutation. The hypothesis is that the wild type version has varying characteristic different from the mutant plant.
The Lycopersicon esculent and Cr are the mutant and wild type version respectively. The non-ripening is physically characterized by yellow skin, skin softening and no pigmented pericarp. While the ripening type has the normal characteristics of red skin, moderate shin and pigmented pericarp. Through mutation and genetic alterations the carotenoid pigments were modified in the ripening tomato achieved by abolishment of the pericarp tissue.
The mutation failed to respond to ethylene. Ethylene alters the plants morphology and physiology by regulating genes expression. Epi research also suggested that seedlings did not respond to ethylene to cause growth.
The earlier expression of pTOM6 gene with the advance dropping of firmness. The lycopene and carotenoid accumulated to a higher level in epinastic than that in VFN8 until BK10, the last stage investigated, which is possibly related to the expression time of pTOM5 in epinastic. The synthesis of lycopene and carotenoid possibly lag behind the expression of their encoding genes.
Mutation leads to change in the flowers, fruit, stems and foliage appearance. The mutation begins with a change in the color of the flowers. In such case, there may be the presence of flecked colors in a flower. Similarly, in most tomato plants with single flowers, one might observe that the stem holds double flowers translated to the fruit to be produced. Fruit may change in color, shape and contents. Such conditions are referred to as reversion.
Most mutations in the tomato plant are influenced by temperature fluctuations, insect damage or cold weather. In the mutation, the features are passed from cell to cell of the plant making the wild type. The cell may lose some of its value or gain features. Insertion of some genetic materials leads to change in characteristics. In most tomatoes, the green pigment shows that the cells have mutated gained the uniform ripening mutations or lost and failed to ripen.
Wang, Zhong-feng, Ying, Tie-jin, Bao, Bi-li, & Huang, Xiao-dan. (2005). Characteristics of fruit ripening in tomato mutant epi *. Zhejiang University Press.
Mustilli, A C, Fenzi, F, Ciliento, R, Alfano, F, & Bowler, C. (n.d.). Phenotype of the tomato high pigment-2 mutant is caused by a mutation in the tomato homolog of DEETIOLATED1.
Mizrahi, Y., Dostal, H. C., McGlasson, W. B., & Cherry, J. H. (January 01, 1975). Transplantation Studies with Immature Fruit of Normal, and rin and nor Mutant Tomatoes. Plant Physiology, 55, 6, 1120-