Numerous theoretical perspectives try to explain the state of Iraqi before and after the United States invasion in 2003. Most importantly, the western assumptions are biased towards the leadership and governance of Iraqi. As a result, the theories have created mixed symptoms and the causes of ethnic conflicts and sectarianism does not have evidence to approve the underlying assumptions. In my opinion, I argue that, the assumptions and biases of the western have played a large role to convince the society that Iraqi government is responsible for the suffering of its citizens. The United States of America have itself failed to improve the state of the nation even after the fall of Saddam Hussein regime. In the paper, I will address the uncertainties that arise due to claims on the resistance to modernity, the practices of sectarianism and issues in collective belonging.
Haddad explains the different levels of Sectarianism that are either more or less contentious. The levels consist of passive, banal, and assertive sectarianism. He argues that, banal sectarianism involves high levels of ignorance to social facts (Haddad, 27). To add on, he states that the passive sectarianism involves routine in performing religious rituals publicly, without challenging any other groups (Haddad, 26). He further explains assertive sectarianism as an aggressive behavior of individuals to proclaim to the masses that their religions are the most righteous. In Iraq, different scenarios adopt any of the forms of sectarianism and this creates the conflict due to a change in behavior, attitudes, and values.
Paradoxically, the Iraqi residents opposed the move of the Americans since they were feared the interference of their affairs from outsiders. The Iraqi residents always took full responsibility to promote their culture. They believed that the actions of a foreign power aimed at restructuring the leadership of Iraq to distract their lives. There is no clear evidence on how regimes subjected unfairness to its citizens denying them an enjoyment of their lives and inflicting a culture based on religious sycophancy.
It is believed that the growth of sectarianism in Iraq gave rise to sectarian militias. Biased theoretical perspectives explain how militias have caused conflicts of boundaries as rifts continue to emerge due to tribal affiliations. The fight for territories has created hatred between the Shi’a and Sunni communities. Sectarian violence focuses on establishing a heterogeneous neighborhood and this has led to internal disunity and conflicts eliminating any potential chances to reconcile. The sectarian differences continue to intensify amongst Iraqi communities and this is a plot of the authority to remain in power.
Since time immemorial, the society continues to argue that Iraq has not been sectarian, mostly, during the era of Saddam Hussein. The Iraqi residents live on a notion that states, “We are all brothers.” Ironically, the myth guides the citizens to promote the state of nationalism with deep beliefs on their faith. The foreign powers are perceived to create a state of sectarianism in Iraq according to the myth. Contrary, in his book, “Sectarianism in Iraq,” Haddad opposes the myth and argues in detail that it is only a conspiracy to defend the state of Sectarianism in Iraq and Middle East. The political authorities and powers in Iraq promote the myth so that they can blindfold the citizens.
The concept of modernity is imperative for an individual in the process of understanding the structure and culture of the Arab society. The already occurred historical events in the Muslim world concentrate on issues concerning traditionalism and modernity. Pan-Arabism and pan-Islamism has largely transformed Iraq. These forces ensured the citizens opposed the ideas of the colonial masters. Pan- Arabism and Islamism foundations differ with concepts of organic solidarity. They advocate for a strong bonding in religion and nationhood to create a strong spirit of togetherness. Pan-Arabism goes against the ideas based on Europe and fights any instances of duplicating these ideas, but it has always been unsuccessful. Pan-Islamism advocates for a renewal process in the Islamic religion to stand strong and oppose the ideas of the west.
Ever since the 14th century, Iraq has experienced an increased power and authority, societal change of beliefs, attitudes and values, advancements in technology and economic realms (Nussaibah, 78). Moreover, the country continues to embrace ideas of rationalism, humanism and scientific thought process targeting the activities around the globe. External forces and the thoughts of the European nations influence modernity in Iraq. She has always been a victim of European control and this places it to a disadvantage in matters of art, culture, science, politics and the economy. The invasion of The United States wanted to bring the leadership of Saddam Hussein to a standstill.
On the other hand, the 2003 invasion had an impact on the issues of collective belonging. During the era of Saddam, there was a ban of the trade unions and the laws prohibited their activities. The ban aimed at denying the citizens to fight for their rights and come out of the bondage of discrimination. After the collapse of the regime, the trade unions emerged and mounted spontaneous strikes advocating for representation of the Baath party in policy formulation and implementation.
A huge number of trade unionists held a meeting in Baghdad where the emergence of Workers Democratic Trade Union Federation materialized. They laid out plans to re-establish trade unions and this was successfully achieved. The International Labor Organization and the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions met the Trade Unionists to discuss the effective means of establishing transparent, accountable, and democratic unions. The incidences of strikes were on the increase as workers demanded better salaries and working conditions.
The Bush administration opposed Bruskin argument that, "The right to organize is fundamental to democracy” (Hans, 44). The U.S labor against the war paid frequent visits to working sites to investigate on the existing working conditions. The union also educated the employees on anti-labor stance and instills hope to finding the best solutions to their problems
Collective bargaining gave rise to the trade unions whose aim is to unite the country and avoid disunity and ethnic differences that may end up to civil war. The elements of a fair and just society are fundamental in legalizing trade unions to advocate for employee rights. In the era of Saddam Hussein, the trade unions were abolished thus realization of collective bargaining remained a dream to many workers.
The invasion of The United States wanted to bring the leadership of Saddam Hussein to a standstill. The U.S believed their efforts aimed at bringing a sense of modernism to the Arab world. The Arab leaders had always suppressed their citizens denying them the freedom to enjoy their human rights. The interference in the Arabs affairs would create a modern Iraq where everyone will be entitled to his or her rights and enjoyments in all their endeavors.
The government that was established after the U.S invasion had an objective to create a transparent and accountable government to serve the interests of their people. The tradition where leaders were elected into ministerial positions due to their religious affiliations continues to depreciate as the sense to consider the performance ability is a reality (Terrill, 67). The prevalent Sectarianism continues to depreciate and this promotes nationalism. The different religions are reconciling and avoiding themselves from engaging in scathing attacks.
The United States may have invaded Iraqi to control the vast natural resources at their interests. There lies a great problem in the predispositions of the parochial and patriarchal systems that put blame on the administrative powers of Iraqi. In most instances, much focus is put on wrangles between the Muslim communities, but the efforts of the administration to promote nationalism remains unappreciated. The origin and development of Iraq have always opposed racism and emerging conflicts amongst its citizens. After the invasion of the state by the United States, their resources have been exploited to the benefit of the western countries.
Sectarian violence may have resulted due to factors only known by Iraqi residents. The state of Iraqi has not delivered to the expectations of its citizens but it’s not right to consider it a complete failure since there is room for improvement. Analytical approaches aiming at ending marginalization must be put in place to improve the state of the nation. The approaches will be the best resolutions to end ethnic conflict and bitterness amongst the communities.
Consequently, the need to come up with constructive evidence and accurate explanations on the state of the country depends on the global, modern structure. The fact is that, Iraqi residents believe in nationalism and the failure of their state is as a result, of the outlook by the European powers. The western powers believed that the political problems of Iraqi have been inflicted by the poor structures of the government as it fails to address the setbacks. Moreover, the claims that Iraqi promote racism and violence are highlighted but with much prejudices. Similarly, the U.S mindset perceives Iraqi as a state that failed to align itself with modernity and this is a disappointment according to their expectations.
As elucidated above, the theoretical perspectives have failed to indicate the political reality in Iraqi. The need to conduct evidence research will shed light to the political realms and ignore the approaches that create confusions when explaining the ethnic conflicts and violence. The structural ramifications of the European legacies must address the real problems and avoid the habit of developing misconceptions to convince the world that Iraqi has failed as a nation. Briefly, the disadvantages brought by the invasion of Iraqi by the United States outweigh the advantages. The western countries cannot be the best solutions to the problems of Iraq and economic development will not be achieved due to exploitation by western powers.
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