Basketball is one of the most popular sport games. To date, this game has more than 200 million registered players around the world as well as hundreds of millions of fans. Basketball has been around for more than a century, and during that time, the game has acquired the status that allows it to be an important part of the world sport. In addition, there are various levels of this sport game: i.e. amateur, professional, and educational. The rules of this game are extremely simple, allowing everyone to understand them in a short time. But at the same time, playing basketball is much more difficult. This game requires certain players' skills, the acquisition of which takes a long time. Moreover, this game requires additional physical and physiological features on a professional level. If one considers this game in detail, it becomes obvious that basketball has a complex system of strategies and tactics, allowing players to show their full potential.
This game, like many other sports games, is a team game. The essence of the teams' competition in this game is to shoot the ball in the basket of their opposition. As is known, basketball is played by hands only. Getting in the hoop can bring a team "from one to three points" (Fontanella 20). The team with the greater number of points wins the game. One should consider each of its components to better understand the essence of basketball. In this particular case, it is necessary to start with the ball. The weight of the basket-ball ranges from 485 grams ("a regulation ball, 69-71 cm") up to 540 grams ("a heavier ball, 69-71 cm) depending on the manufacturer and type of the ball (Arias 52). Any basket-ball is made from the durable rubber that contributes to a rebound in the game. Every basket-ball has exactly 8 inserts, which are separated by the black seams. It should also be said that the ball must have a certain color that is much important for the general conditions of the game. The ball can be designed strictly for indoor games or it may be versatile, allowing playing on the street. The rim in which players throw the ball is a metal ring with "a diameter of 45 cm" (Gallian 86). The rim has a net of dense material, which contributes to the necessary "delay" of the ball after it enters the basket. It is easy for a shooter to judge "softness" based on the way that the ball hits the rim for a slightly errant shot" (Fontanella 40). The rim is usually mounted on a height of "3.05 meters from the floor" on the backboard, which may be made either of either wood or impact-resistant glass. The game is played on a rectangular play field of "28 meters lengthwise and 15 meters widthwise" (Gallian 55). Each team consists of 5 main and 5-7 permanent substitution players, which can come into play only after a stoppage of play and the referee's whistle. The team in possession has the right to substitution at each stoppage of the game, but the team in no possession is entitled to a substitution only if the ball rebounds, when the team in possession makes a substitution and during timeout.
The quantity indicator of the final result may reach "80-85 points per game" (Arias 54). With regard to the change of the score, it all depends on the intensity and importance of the game. On average, the score changes every 30 seconds. The success result requires a concerted action by all players and their subordination to the general problem. The actions of each player of the team have a specific focus, respectively, which are distinguished by the basketball positions. The center should be tall, athletic, and have great endurance and jumping ability. The point guard is primarily a player of high mean stature; the player should be fast and have a perfect jumping ability, well-developed sense of time and space, sniper skills, ability to assess the situation and attack the game boldly and decisively. The power forward should also be fast, agile and resilient, considerate and attentive. The distribution of the players according to their functions is one of the basic principles of any game activity. The players are distinguished not only by their playing tricks and by location on the field, but also their physiological characteristics. Productivity game action is closely linked with the performance of sensorimotor response. Experience showed that the task-oriented tests, based on visual feedback control of body position, can be applied for an "evaluation of sensorimotor performance in individuals of different age and expertise" (Duncan and Lyons 82). The most important indicator is the sensorimotor sense of time, which can be considered as a component of the special abilities of the basketball players. The activity of the complex analyzers is the heart of the development of a sense of time, since the perception of time is associated with the spatial perception. Basketball players of different roles need to possess specialized perception of time intervals, which increases the quality and productivity of their game. Teams tend to reach advantage over their opposition, masking their intentions while trying to uncover their opponents' ones. The game takes place in the interaction of the players of the team and the resistance of the opponents, who make every effort to carry off the ball and organize the transition. In this regard, the requirements for operational thinking of a player are predominant here.
In addition, mental speed is especially important in order to take into account the probability of changes in the situation and in making decisions in emotionally stressful conditions. The evaluation of the psycho-physiological functions that determine the success of the game of basketball activities requires using research methods of "speed and accuracy of motor actions", as well as "the volume of distribution and switching of attention" (Duncan and Lyons 39). It is necessary to overcome the resistance of the opponents in order to throw the ball in the rim, and this is possible only if the players possess certain methods of technique and tactics, if they are able to move quickly and suddenly change direction and speed of movement. The basketball player's activities in the game are not just the sum of the individual methods of protection and attack, but a set of actions with a common goal in a single dynamic system. Thus, a proper interaction between the players of the team is the basis of collective action, which should be aimed at achieving the common interests of the team and rely on the initiative and creativity of each player.
Before performing any move, the basketball player holds the most stable position in which legs are bent, feet are placed parallel at shoulder width or one is exposed forward, torso is slightly tilted, weight is evenly distributed on both legs, and arms are bent front of the body. The movement is usually carried out by running over the short intervals. "Taking such a defensive posture could guard against a quick first strike or, it could simply be a matter of using the team’s best players" (Golliver 47). While running, basketball player puts his leg on the entire foot or with the heelball-toe roll, bending both legs. When the player accelerates, the run is performed with the short steps, the leg is placed on the front of the foot. Rotations are performed with and without the ball in the supporting position and on the way. According to the rules of the game, the turns with the ball can be performed while standing on one leg and pushing the other (Golliver 47). They allow the player with the ball to get away from the opponents' control or change the direction of attack to beat the point guard. In basketball, there are different ways of passing the ball to the partner. They can be divided into two groups: the handoffs with two hands and the handoffs with one hand. "That is probably more important than analyzing the flight of the ball because it is the forces of the hand on the ball that give it its initial velocity and spin" (Fontanella 46).
Depending on the situation, one or the other type of handoffs may be more efficient. The final offensive team's efforts are aimed at one of the players to create the conditions for a throw in the rim. The outcome of the game depends on the accuracy of the shots. In today's basketball, the team throws the ball into the opponent's rim "65-70 times on average" (Arias 53). The shots are performed from the short, medium and long distances. The short distance takes up to "3 meters", the average is from "3 up to 7 meters", and the long distance is "more than 7 meters" (Gallian 72). If a player is in front of the basket or near the front line, it is expedient to throw the ball directly to the rim. According to Gallian, if the player is located at an angle of 15-45° in relation to backboard, it is better to throw the ball in the rim with a rebound from the backboard. Dribble is a method that gives an opportunity to the player to move the ball on the ground with a large range of speeds and in any direction. Dribble allows to get away from the standing close defender, to get the ball out of the rim after a successful fight for the rebound and to organize a breakaway counter attack. Dribble can help to put up a barrier to the partner or, finally, to divert the opponent who covers the player's partner, to give him the ball and then to attack. In all other cases, the player should not overdo of dribble in order not to reduce the speed to counter-attack and not to disturb the rhythm of the game. It is also necessary to pay attention to the feints, which are one of the most spectacular components of basketball. Feint is a complex operation consisting of the several techniques of the game. An attacker aims to get away from the defender and beat him by applying different techniques in a specific combination. Feints' performance is a subtle art based on "the speed of action", on "the ability to quickly switch from one movement to another", and on "a sense of balance" (Duncan and Lyons 79). The ball is usually thrown with a backspin, which allows keeping it on the set trajectory and achieving a smoother rebound after an unsuccessful shot. In addition, the reverse rotation slows down the speed of the ball and increases the chances that it will enter the rim and not bounce out. "A basketball is slowed more and the rotation is affected more if the bottom portion of the ball hits the rim" (Fontanella 83).
If one returns to the description of the rules of basketball, it should be said that the game begins in the middle of the field where the referee throws the ball up. The representatives of both teams are obliged to return the ball to their partners, which often occurs in a quite harsh jump. The rules of basketball imply that the game is divided into "four periods of ten minutes at intervals of two minutes" (Duncan and Lyons 12). The duration of the break between halves of the game comprises fifteen minutes. If the score is tied at the end of the fourth period, the game shall be extended for a further period of five minutes or as many periods of five minutes as necessary to break the tie. The teams shall exchange the rims before the third period.
Today, basketball is one of the most popular sports team games in the world. This game has been around for over a century, and during that time, it has become an integral part of Western society. Hundreds of millions of people play this game around the world. In addition, it is a part of the sports base of the educational process. The rules of the game are rather simple, so that everyone can learn them in a relatively short period. However, at the same time, not everyone is able to play basketball well, because this game requires certain skills, such as the special physical training and physiological data. In many respects, basketball can be considered a strategic game. This game gives everyone a chance to reach their potential and self-improve.
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Duncan, Michael J., and Lyons, Mark. Sports and Athletics Preparation, Performance, and Psychology: Trends in Human Performance Research. Nova, 2011. ProQuest ebrary, site.ebrary.com.proxy.chamberlain.edu:8080/lib/chamberlain/reader.action?docID=10675080. Web. 2 February 2017.
Fontanella, John J. The Physics of Basketball. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. ProQuest ebrary, site.ebrary.com.proxy.chamberlain.edu:8080/lib/chamberlain/reader.action?docID=10188484. Accessed 2 February 2017.
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Golliver, Ben. "Say Goodbye, Cylinder." Sports Illustrated vol. 123, no. 22, 2015: 47. Vocational and Career Collection, eds.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.chamberlain.edu:8080/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f57e1df4-73b9-4b74-a1f1-959791cc10d6%40sessionmgr101&vid=1&hid=111. Accessed 2 Feb. 2017.