In psychology there are three main types of parenting. They include Authoritative, Authoritarian, and the permissive parenting styles. The Authoritarian parenting style involves the parent feeling the need to control the actions of the child. The parent values highly obedience and respect and usually feels superior to the child. The child develops fear due to the harsh punishments given. Children of Authoritarian parent develop poor social skills and competences. In extreme cases the children may develop insecurities and have ant-social tendencies.
The Permissive parent has no control over the child. The parent avoids confrontation and does not attempt to punish the child and in case of an attempt to punish is made, the child does not take it seriously. The children grows up with full knowledge that they can do anything that they deem fit. Therefore, the children detach themselves from their parents and become independent in earlier years than the others.
Since the type of parenting involves an analysis of the parent-child relationship, temperament plays a key role. This is because in a normal setting, the relationship between parents and children explain the relationships that exist between them. The temperaments of the child indicate the inculcated morals and values learnt from the parent. It is thus very important to consider the levels of temperaments in determining the type of parenting. These levels determine the merits and demerits of the parenting style. The goal of any parent is to bring up responsible and happy adults.
James Lange’s theory on emotions asserts that, external Stimuli lead to a physiological reaction that can be interpreted as fear. One’s emotions depend on the interpretation of the external stimuli. He gave an example of a bear that, once you see a bear, your body trembles and this can be interpreted to mean that you are afraid.
In an experiment studying the effects of background-noise levels on reading-content retention, the independent variable would be the back-ground noise while the dependent variable to be reading-content retention. This is because the independent value is the one that cause change on the other and the dependent variable is the one that is changed. In the above example, the variable causing change is the back-ground noise while the one been changed is reading-content retention.
Rohypnol drug is a sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and a skeletal muscle relaxant drug. It is prescribed to treat severe and chronic insomnia that is not responsive to other drugs. It should be used strictly used for a short term period. The drug is referred to as “date rape drug” since it has been used in many occasions to sedate people before they are raped. This is because the drug can easily be administered though food and drinks.
The reticular formation refers to a region in the brain that is mainly tasked with the regulation of sleep-wake cycle and filtering of stimuli. In specific terms, it is important since it controls the sleep-wake cycle and filters stimuli by discriminating the irreverent stimuli. It controls somatic motor, cardiovascular, modulates pain, and also habituation.
Memory traces are created once we learn something new. The decay theory proposes that memory fades due to passing of time. Therefore, as time passes, the ability of the brain to recall information reduces. However, the decay tends to affect the short term memory system since long term memory is resistant to physical attacks and shocks of the brain.
In order to make a worker adept in a rather boring task, positive reinforcement has to be used. This is because a positive reinforcement involves addition of appetitive stimulus that increases the behavioral response. For example, the worker may be awarded for fully doing the task repeatedly and hence creates a positive attitude toward it.
Cognitive dissonance refers to the excessive mental stress and discomfort that is experienced by individuals who belief in two or more contradicting opinions, values concurrently. In a typical scenario, an individual tends to hold to one opinion and act in the reverse. For example, one may belief that smoking is bad for his health but still continue to smoke. Due to the contradiction in believes held, the individual continuous with criminal and/or other dangerous activities.
Prejustice is judgment that is based on outward look, race, gender, religion, sexual preference before gathering information on the individual. Stereotype refers to thoughts about an individual or places, or way of doing things that are held and may not be the right reflection of the individual, place or way of doing things. Discrimination is prejudicial treatment of individual in a different way than the other especially if in is to the detriment of the individual. Self-fulfilling prophesy is an initially a false definition of a scenario/situation leading to a new behavior that makes the initial false conception be ‘true’. This perpetuates the reign of error. These words are related in that they describe the negative aspects that leads to making judgments that are wrong, improper and deceiving.
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep that is the 5th stage of sleep occurs 60-90 minutes after going to sleep. It is important since it influences memory. It is believed that dreams occurs when data is been absorbed during the REM sleep. REM sleep is also restorative. It helps to restore energy of the body according to the sleep patterns.
Medical mental illness refers to the mental illness that is caused by diseases that affect the brain or from external causes. Psychoanalytical mental illness is the mental illness that is as a result of psychological aspects that affect an individual such as delusion, hallucinations, catatonia, and thought related disorders. A cognitive mental illness is the mental illness that is associated with learning, perception, amnesia, dementia, delirium, and problem solving. Humanistic mental disorders refer to mental illnesses that are associated with the value systems held by individuals in the face of the society’s values. Sociocultural mental illnesses refer to the type of mental illnesses associated with the sociocultural aspects of a particular society. This may include the fear of catching disease like HIV, uncertainty of survival of babies among other factors. All these perspectives differ basically in the core considerations in the classification of the mental illness. Some types of mental illnesses are however, found in more than one perspective of mental illness.