Throughout the history of any nation, there are main concepts associated to that particular nation. Some of the concepts that dominated various in their chronological development include; nationalism, industrialization, globalization, flattening, economic systems and social Darwinism. These concepts vary depending on the political ideologies or cultural believes or social setting of the people. Nationalism is the political ideologies that consist of an individual identifying with or posses close attachments to their nation of origin. Nationalism brings a sense of national identity; it is related to patriotism. On the other hand, economic system is a system of distribution and production of goods and services. Globalization is the international integration coming from the world’s interchange views. Similarly, economic system is concerned with the allocation of resources in the country. Industrialization is described as the period of economic and social change that a human group transforms from agrarian ways of life to industrial one. In essence, any given nation is associated with specific historical changes and believes. Cold war was a continued condition of military and political tension between major powers in the Western parts of USA with NATO as well as other powers in the Eastern Bloc. It was cold war because there was no real large-scale war between the conflicting parties.
Chinese civilization originated from a number of regional centers along the Yangtze River valleys and the Yellow River that occurred during the Neolithic era (Kueh, 34). However, the Yellow is believed to be the cradle of the Chinese civilization. With thousands of famous and interesting history, China is one of the first nations to receive civilization in the whole globe. Centuries of amalgamation, development and migration brought about the civilization of China. What makes the Chinese civilization different and unique in the global history is the continuity that has been realized throughout over the past 4,000 years to the present century.
The Chinese have created a strong sense of mythological and real origins, which have kept voluminous records from early times. It is majorly because of these records that knowledge about the past ancient history of China and some of its close neighbors, has survived. Until the twentieth century, mainly the representatives of the ruling scholar official group wrote the Chinese history; they were also mandated to provide the ruler with assistants to justify or guide their policies (Kueh, 30). The accounts focused on the dynastic politics and decorated court histories as well as developments that were included among the public. According to historians, Chinese political series of dynasties, which occurs in a pattern where one follows another one in structure like a cycle of ascent, decay, rebirth and achievement under a new family.
Another remarkable historical theme identified is the unceasing struggles and efforts of the sedentary Chinese, as opposed to the threats posed to their way of life and safety by other people other than the Chinese on the borders of their territory in the northwest, northeast and the north. The Mongols became the first alien people to conquer China in the thirteenth century. Despite the fact that the Mongols were less culturally developed as compared to China, they affected the civilization of China and increased the vulnerability of China from the north. In the seventeenth century, China came under another alien rule, and the conquerors were the Manchus from the north and northeast.
Over the centuries, the foreigners as perceived by the Chinese rulers originated from societies that were less developed along their land boundaries. This condition limited the view of the external world.
In the modern era, the influence of the Chinese economy was minimal until key reforms to the status of the economy, which took place in the late 1980s. In essence, communist party founded the China in 1949. It was then followed by a strategic development by heavy industry. Consumption of goods and services was reduced at the same time rapid industrialization received more attention during that period. The government opted to control major part of the nation's economy and channeled available resources into building new factories and developing existing factories. Factories were created, but large and small private sectors were not given support and at some point were terminated. On the other hand, capitalist was punished, and others were severely fined. The agricultural sector was made to rely on its limited capital. By following the Soviet model, the Chinese administration aimed at setting technologically sophisticated rather large-scale, capital-intensive plants. China’s socialist construction has realized great achievements that have received attention from the world.
Chinese nationalism has ranged from relatively different ideological sources some of which include traditional Chinese thinking, Marxism and Russian thought of ethnology. Similarly, the ideology appears in various distinct and always conflicting manifestations comprising ultra-imperialism. The nationalism of China was especially seen during the transition period when China was doing major reforms.
China is one of the ancient civilizations globally and has developed to be the largest with an advanced economy as per the recorded history. Currently, China has grown to be one of the most superpowers and influential nation in the world. Their economy is growing rapidly, and it has dominated the markets globally. In addition, China is one of the countries in the world that still maintain strong cultural believes and architecture.
Germany has a storied and long history; the people of Germany like any other Europeans across Europe can be dated back to the Roman Empire days. Throughout the history more than of not less than two millennia, different early German tribes mainly dominated the western and the northern regions of Europe (Milward, 16). Despite the fact that Julius Caesar pushed the borders of the Roman Empire eastwards up to the Rhine River, the Romans could not succeed in controlling the eastern region of the Rhine River as well as the north of the Danube that is the central of the current Germany.
During the period of 55 BC, Julius Caesar was given mandates to rule the Roman province of Gaul. He made the Rhine the central of the new province. In addition, with support of his people, they created earth bank and a ditch made of a wooden palisade from the top Rhine to the lower sides of Danube. A battle between the Roman army and German army, where several Roman soldiers lost their lives and the Germans gained confidence in their army (Keller, 34). The battle gave assurance that the Romans will not conquer the Germans beyond the Rhine. However, the Romans resided western and the southern side of Germany. They created several towns that still survive until the present.
The tribes of Germany continue to raid, inside the entire empire. However, the central place of residence remained to be Danube and the north of River Rhine until the 5th century era when the Ostrogoths, Vandals, Franks and Burgundians migration through France, Spain and Italy (Dufner, 28). The presence of these tribes creates part of history of this region.
The industrial revolution started in England than a century later; it took roots in Germany. Germany was not a political unit until the period of the nineteenth century. For several decades until 1860s, there were efforts to adopt industrialization in Germany that had already started in other parts of Europe (Chan, 23). This adoption was relatively successful. Early 1870s the current German nation was established and afterwards major industries were created and this resulted to rise in Germany's industrialization. The rapid development of rail system under the support of the state government of Germany. The construction of the rail system increased the demand for coal and steel. Furthermore, the coalfields located at Ruhr Valley were completely developed and made Germany one of the major coal producers in the whole of Europe. Many steel industries also developed at the same time the development of coal and steel expanded the capital and banking markets available to Germany. Today Germany has grown to be the most mechanized nation in Europe and the rest of the world.
In conclusion, over the past several decades the chronological development of both China and Germany has realized significant changes in various aspects ranging from the economic system to the industrial revolution. Germany experienced industrial revolution quite early than China. Both nations struggled to meet their desired goals; they had to fight for their rights or area of residence. Industrial revolution brought light to several countries in Europe particularly to Germany and China. Several other developments came after the industrial revolution.
Borchardt, Knut, and George Hammersley. The Industrial Revolution in Germany, 1700-1914. London: Collins, 1972.
Chan, F G, and Thomas H. Etzold. China in the 1920s: Nationalism and Revolution. New York: New Viewpoints, 1976.
Dufner, Annette. Germany. San Diego, Calif: Greenhaven Press, 2003.
Eberhard, Wolfram. A History of China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.
Keller, Wolfgang. "From socialist showcase to Mezzogiorno? Lessons on the role of technical change from East Germany's post-World War II growth performance." Journal of Development Economics (2000): n. pag.
Letsch, Molly. "Samuel P. S. Ho and Y. Y. Kueh, Sustainable Economic Development in South China :Sustainable Economic Development in South China." Economic Development and Cultural Change (2002): n. pag.
Milward, Alan S., Herbert Giersch, Karl-Heinz Paque, and Holger Schmieding. "The Fading Miracle: Four Decades of Market Economy in Germany." Economic History Review (1994): n. pag.
Presseisen, Ernst L. "Book Review:The Sino-German Connection: Alexander von Falkenhausen between China and Germany 1900-1941 Hsi-Huey Liang." Journal of Modern History (1980): n. pag.
TonyJohnson, and JenniferVanDyke. "The Winds of Change: China's Growing Economy." (1998):