Informational technologies have developed so rapidly, that there was no way not to affect the ways of teaching and learning. This paper gives brief information about the concept of use of technologies in education, as well as how they can help with the biggest problem of education at our time. The paper describes the basic formats of e-learning, their advantages and differences. As plagiarism is considered as crime nowadays, the paper includes the information about why this problem is so important and what are the ways of preventing it.
(Keywords: e-learning, Informational Technologies, plagiarism,)
Modern scientific literature pays special attention on what innovative approaches to teaching students should be systematic, and covers all aspects of educational work in preparing future professionals. It is also necessary to review the theoretical and practical approaches to educational content, professional and pedagogical training of teachers, development of new technologies and teaching methods.
The basis of innovative educational technologies in educational process should consist of social order, professional interests of future specialists, taking into account individual, personal characteristics of students. Therefore, the use of innovative forms and methods in preparing specialists in higher education must be properly combined with a pragmatic understanding of the goals and objectives of education and training. Innovative methods create conditions for the formation and consolidation of professional knowledge, abilities and skills of students, promote the development of professional qualities of future specialist. The use of innovative methods in the learning process contributes to overcoming stereotypes in teaching process of different disciplines, developing new approaches to professional situations, the development of creative abilities of students.
Currently, there goes an intensive search for new forms and methods of teaching students. In this regard, these main tasks should be put in front of a modern teacher: training in an interactive mode; increase students ' interest in the discipline studied; the approach of educational process to the practice of everyday life, namely: formation of communication skills, adapting to rapidly changing living conditions, socialization, increased psychological stress, learning conflict resolution skills, etc. Thus, the main task of qualitatively new educational system is achieving the sustained interest of students to the subject, to educate themselves from the very first courses, as well as their involvement in scientific research. For this, it is required to initially configure the system of psychological thinking of the students to be able to gain knowledge and to master the future profession. The student, as a future professional, needs to understand how, after receiving social and professional skills, he will be able to apply them in practice. Innovative methods and technologies in teaching can help the teacher in solving problems.
Prospects and challenges of implementation of information technology
However, the current educational practice shows that the reality and effectiveness of the processes of computerization and is still far from idealizing the forecast. Currently, IT continues to be used as a modern educational tool that allows to improve traditional education. However, it does not change neither learning objectives nor the content or the point of view of the learner, who only passively receives knowledge and information. However, scientists emphasize that the established form of the multimedia training standard should be the creation of entire academic subjects associated with a change in objectives and content. This means the creation of new courses, initially concentrated on the application of all training methods, including interactive technology. Only such an approach will lead to the improvement of education, a significant increase in its efficiency and quality, the need for which is caused by the constant development of society.
Technical ability to create such items has expanded considerably with the advent and proliferation of IT, which has led to the emergence of such a trend in modern training as multimedia. Multimedia technology (MT) has allowed to combine the capabilities of computer, audio and video equipment.
At the present stage of development of IT, there were created a variety of multimedia objects and tools that can actively be applied in the teaching practice: multimedia and Internet directories for practically all fields of science, game and authentic simulators with fully immersive situations, multimedia training systems and complexes and much more. Aspirations of the majority of countries have recently focused on the modernization of the education system, based on the wide use of MT, which represent new opportunities for learning.
The development of information encourages scientific and pedagogical public and the whole system of education management to address the problem of modernization of educational process. In modern conditions it should be based on the introduction of information and communication technologies to develop various forms of education, to implement it remotely.
Among the advantages of introducing new technologies of education called: "a high degree of involvement of the learners in the learning process: "forced activity" - forced activation of thinking and activity of students; increasing the emotional involvement of the learners and the creative nature of practice; mandatory direct interaction of learners among themselves and with the teacher; forcing the collective effort, the intensification of the learning process." In addition, each of the methods, along with the training, runs common to all methods of training function of providing transition from the organization of the educational process by the teacher to self-organization and self-regulation of this process by students in contact with the teacher.
The use of Internet technology in teaching
Full development of the system of higher professional education is almost impossible without the use of Internet technologies that can be used both in educational process and in the system of managing educational establishments and structural subdivisions.
Internet technologies in the educational process of higher professional education provide an opportunity to use distance learning; remote conduct of the contest; participate in teleconferences; create the methodical association of the faculty of the University; receive information about participation in various competitions and grant opportunities; help check out students for honesty by checking their work through the special plagiarism scanners.
The use of Internet technologies in managerial work of the University allows to create a unified management infrastructure; to create and provide access to library catalogues.
Internet technology in modern education provides an opportunity to get information resources for personal self-education of students. In today's society a student - professional in any industry, needs not only the ability to use the acquired knowledge in solving problems but the ability to independently acquire new knowledge and skills and use previously obtained knowledge in a real and specific economic situation.
Multimedia lectures help to convey material to students in a clear and interesting way, to intensify the work of students during the lectures. The feature of the use of Internet technologies and multimedia tools in reading lectures and conducting practical classes is that the lecturer puts a brief summary of lectures on the website of the institute and the student can print and use it directly during the lecture. As for lectures and for practical classes, a special page which contains demo material in the format of presentation and additional material in the form of links to websites and publications on a certain topic is created. Lecture material is posted at block-modular principle in the form of separate elements or files that form a logical hierarchical structure for organizing relevant search system that allows students to easily differentiate between sections and topics. The list of used literature has an external hypertext links as pointers to bibliographic libraries or information centers with these materials. Study material, prepared by the lecturer, provides students the opportunity to work both in interactive mode and the operational mode of selecting individual fragments and then copy.
The basic principle of operation in interactive mode - the most complete, detailed processing of the material, the organization of the required number of internal and external communications, user-friendly interface, allowing students to most effectively use the course material.
Examples of technologies used in learning
Electronic Learning (E-Learning)
Originally, the term "electronic learning" means training by means of a computer, but as technology develops, the importance of this concept has expanded. Now e-learning covers the variety of educational technologies that can be divided into two groups – synchronous and asynchronous (Selwyn, 2011).
Synchronous e-learning is distance learning, but in real time. It is very similar to ordinary face-to-face training; the only difference is that students are at a distance from each other. Widespread webinars are the most striking example of this form of learning. Special software is required to organize such lectures.
Asynchronous e-learning is learning in which a student receives all necessary information from online sources or electronic media and automatically adjusts pace and schedule for learning. The system of asynchronous e-learning includes all kinds of CD-courses and e-learning courses, podcasts and screencasts.
Different types of e-learning
Virtual school is an educational institution in which the pedagogical process and learning are carried out through Internet. Materials on training courses in the virtual school are in electronic form and placed on the website so that authorized students could use them. These materials generally include the texts of lectures on the subject, online tests and simulators, dictionaries, etc. After reviewing the materials of the virtual classroom, the student performs a number of tasks that are automatically checked by the system. The student can interact with the network teachers by consulting them on the subjects. Network teachers can monitor and assess student’s knowledge, communicating with him by email, by phone, in the forum or by other technical means of communication. Assessment of students throughout the course is usually implemented in the form of the exam (full or part time) (Visser, 2005).
Distance learning course is a specific, based on the use of modern information technologies, form of presentation of the content of the training course. Distance learning course is a key element of constructing training using distance learning technologies
With the help of Internet technology, the following types of classes are available:
Chat-classes —training, carried out with the use of the chat technology. The chat sessions are synchronous, i.e. all participants have simultaneous access to the chat. Chat-rooms, organized for interaction of teachers and pupils are available in many remote schools.
Web classes —virtual classes, conferences, seminars, business games, labs, workshops and other educational sessions conducted with the help of telecommunication means and other features of the world wide web. Specialized educational web forums — form user experience on a particular topic or problem using the records left on one of the sites with installed appropriate software (Duffy et al., 2004).
Web forums differ from the chat sessions with their long-term (multi-day) operation and the asynchronous nature of the interaction between students and teachers.
Teleconference. Every year, the number of teachers using information and telecommunication technologies in their activities is rapidly growing. Such technologies are applied not only in conducting classes with schoolchildren and students, but also in organizational, methodological and extracurricular activities of the teachers. If some years ago, the use of computers and other similar equipment have been the prerogative of only some teachers, it is virtually impossible to specify the subject area in teaching which does not use modern hardware and software.
The use of computer telecommunications in education has the following properties: high transmission speed of information in different forms through e-mail, teleconferencing on any subject, the presence of network storage information in the form of information servers creates the preconditions for their effective use in educational process with the purpose of activation of educational activity in which: a) individual, group and frontal methods of organization of educational activity are used ; b) the leading place is occupied with methods of design and research activities, as well as other methods, revealing the creative potential of learners; C) educational interests and views of students are developed, their own unconventional solution to the problems encountered in the learning process are produced.
Teleconferences (TCF) are one of the most used and most effective telecommunications technology in education, involving active learning. They give students an opportunity to form an opinion on the events, to understand many phenomena and explore them from different perspectives, to solve problems through joint efforts, ask each other different questions, share ideas, etc. (Lane, 1993).
The application of e-learning technologies in the University:
• expand the range of educational services of high quality provided by the institution and ensure its consistency with the planning of the training course until its completion;
• increase the effectiveness when students passing exams.
• increase the attractiveness of the studied material at the expense of improvement of conditions of education;
• expand opportunities for professional growth and advanced training of teachers of the University;
• provide the teachers of the University greater scope to explore the experiences of colleagues and retraining;
• increase number of students studying simultaneously.
• reduce workload of students;
• provide more efficient and timely updating and dissemination of learning resources and increase their accessibility;
• ensure continuity of student learning by removing spatial and temporal restrictions;
• ensure the personal working schedule of students and a list of training courses according to their interests within the educational standard;
• conduct interim and final certification in the form of testing;
• increase the effectiveness of feedback for teachers and University students, etc. (Gyambrah, 2007).
In our days, e-learning has become an integral part of the educational process in many universities, it has also found application in improving the skills – in some corporations, there are units whose task is to organize e-learning for employees.
Plagiarism, with the advent of the Internet, has become a serious problem. Once in the Internet, knowledge is becoming the property of all, abiding copyright is becoming increasingly difficult and even impossible. Gradually it becomes more difficult to identify the original author (Gipp, 2014).
The rapid development of the Internet along with increasing computer literacy promotes the penetration of plagiarism in various spheres of human activity: plagiarism is a hot issue in education, industry and the scientific community.
Plagiarism is a crime. This misleads readers and harms the author, and gives undeserved benefits to the plagiarist.
Wide access to literature, a multiple increase in the number of professional publications, publications on the Internet — all of this practically nullifies any editorial aspirations of "checking" the authenticity and originality of the arguments and facts used in manuscripts offered for publication.
Today, there are many ways to can check the text of the thesis for plagiarism. Each program gives different test results, because their algorithms differ.
In modern universities, almost all the works are checked for plagiarism. This is necessary in order to know whether a student actually did the research or simply downloaded the work from the Internet.
How to check the thesis for plagiarism? Over the past few years, a large number of programs, allowing to determine the amount of plagiarism in teaching and research began to be developed. Among all the software, the most famous and frequently used is the project TurnItIn (Turnitin.com, 2016).
Practice shows that contentious issues increasingly arise during the detection of plagiarism in humanitarian, economic, and legal works. This problem is compounded by the fact that the reviewers (teachers, laboratory assistants) not in all cases try to delve into the written, but simply trust the software, which, unfortunately, is not perfect.
Today, there are no clear criteria as to what can be considered plagiarism even among the developers of the plagiarism detection software. According to the developers themselves, this program can only compare numbers, words, expressions, but is not able to go into the meaning of the text.
Some universities set the percentage of the original text. For example, student needs to have a proven work consisted of no less than 80 percent of the original text.
Currently in the process of informatization is manifested in all spheres of human activity. So the use of modern information technologies is necessary for the development of more effective approaches to learning and improve teaching. IT plays a special role in this process since it enhances learning motivation of students, saving study time, and interactivity and visualization promotes better performance, understanding and assimilation of educational historical material. The initiation of students to the IT is the most important direction in addressing problems of information in modern University and professional training.
Along with this, the development and application of IT in modern University is becoming one of the most important ways of increasing the effectiveness of education. Moreover, the strategic role of IT, and therefore the technical means for its providing, as a factor of socio-economic development of modern society at the moment is very well established.
Duffy, T., & Kirkley, J. (2004). Learner-centered theory and practice in distance education. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gipp, B. (2014). Citation-based plagiarism detection.
Gyambrah, M. (2007). E-Learning Technologies and Its Application in Higher Education.
Lane, C. (1993). Guide to teleconferencing and distance learning. (2nd ed.).
Selwyn, N. (2011). Education and technology. London: Continuum International Pub. Group.
Turnitin.com,. (2016). Retrieved 31 January 2016, from http://turnitin.com/en_us/why-turnitin
Visser, Y. (2005). Trends and issues in distance education. Greenwich, Conn.: Information Age Pub.