This paper is dedicated to online learning, efficiency which depends on many factors. Special instructional design methods and organizational forms of education play an important role in organization of educational process.
Instructional design methods
Instructional design has always been associated with the integration of information resources of the Internet and new media in educational activities. High-quality electronic educational resources are an important factor in the development of education, as evidenced by the interest of organizations dealing with the standardization, the quality of training activities that “will allow the student to construct technology integrated lessons as a part of course work” (Smaldino, Lowther, Russell, 3). For the stage of global information society must be the design of new educational technologies focused on the development of intellectual potential of the student's abilities to carry out the formation of various types of self-employment for the collection, processing, transmission of information. In this paper we will analyze models such as ADDIE, ASSURE, and Kemp Design Model.
ADDIE involves the application of various innovative technologies. This is justified by the fact that a translation of traditional educational process in electronic form will lead to loss
quality. The advantage of this model for organizations is the availability, flexibility and the efficiency of the perception of high-quality knowledge (Wang, Hsu, 76). The main purpose of the model implies the possibility ASSURE to create and maintain a learning environment, which, based on the most efficient performance, relationships and combinations of different types of educational resources, provide psychological comfort and pedagogically sound development subjects. It should be noted that developed with Kemp Design Model eLearning allows optimal form knowledge at the expense of analysis of training needs, motivation and learners assigned before the course ends. The effective use of modern Information Technologies in Education can significantly improve learning efficiency and reduce costs is important for Instructional designer.
ASSURE allow for a clear sequence of studying the material, passing the practical tasks, knowledge test and design. It is aware of the fact that the effective distance learning can exist without shell (Web-site and e-mail). It is important to establish the fact of the relationship between pedagogy and technology, allowing the profitable one complements the other. In turn Kemp Design models rather than physical (or other) nature identify problem areas as a mechanism of human thinking with regard to the solution of problems in this subject area. It differs significantly from the expert systems or systems of mathematical modeling of computer animation. It is impossible to say that the model reproduces psychological model of the teacher in this subject area but it is important that the focus is still on reproducing computer technique means solving problems, which is applied by the expert, that is, the implementation of some part of the tasks as well (or even better) as it makes the teacher. The main problem with the use of multimedia ADDIE is to select a set of media components, and interactive and their application to optimize the training in accordance with the objectives. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the various components of the instructional design of multimedia training systems. It is important that the learning objectives correspond to the selected media means that synchronize design and training. All media components may provide the training content in whole or in part, have links and connections with each other, or do without them. For example, the preparation of the frog can be shown through animation or video. But as the media suggests interactivity, learners can experience the entire process of preparation, if it is shown via an animation model as a multimedia program creates an impression of the real preparation. Likewise, listening is an important component for language learning via multimedia. ADDIE phases operate on a closed circuit and should be repeated continuously in order to lead to an improvement in the process. ADDIE is particularly important in the development of distance learning, where teachers and students have little personal contact, or not have them at all. ADDIE’s disadvantages imply:
- risks associated with the inability to maintain the required learning pace;
- risks associated with the need constant motivation of the student;
- risks associated with inadequate self-esteem and behavior of student;
- risks associated with the inability to establish contact with teacher.
ASSURE provides material in different formats, to the student could choose according to preference. Interactivity is to be creative and useful. The training material will stimulate interest and engagement is especially important for organizations. Environment should enable learners to create their own "virtual personality" and to encourage research and interaction with each other.
Organization of interaction of all participants in the educational the process to achieve the goals of education and training solutions to problems largely depends on the educational technologies owned by the teacher. Possession of modern pedagogical technologies is one of the components of professional competence of teachers at the school, university teacher and instructor of distance learning. One drawback is that the ASSURE many teachers in their classrooms use very different software. In this regard, they are faced with the challenge of developing e-learning materials to demonstrate the dynamics and rules of the opportunity to learn the software. As a rule, in solving this problem, they stop at static screenshots in different operating modes of the studied program, accompanying their comments, which largely follows the conventional prints. This approach is largely due to the technical difficulties in developing dynamic multimedia content that illustrate the operation of the software, and many teachers are not able to without the help of highly skilled programmers to create similar training materials. Use of Kemp Design Model is that they serve as communication tools. Kemp Design Mode allows individual developers and multidisciplinary teams to use the same terms and implement related processes. Evaluation of teachers, learners, and instructional designers provides a basis for the revision and improvement of educational activity. Kemp Design Model is an iterative process, and evaluation should be carried out continuously. Kemp Design Model performance level may reach or exceed the level of the individual or general traditional learning. It is particularly important to understand that any information processing technology secondary to teaching purposes. Hence the basic idea pedagogical design of electronic educational resources - the creation of student-oriented environment, “learning is a product of the interactions in the virtual classroom, and not a product of self-paced mastery of instructional material” (Passerini, Granger, 4). Specificity of Kemp Design Model influences selection and structuring of learning content.
The main feature of Kemp Design Model is interactivity, the use of information and communication technologies to the organization of interaction of all participants in the educational process. In Kemp Design Model can be applied technology collaboration creative activities (project method), the problematic role play, case-method, various forms of control, both automated and open both types of control. Nevertheless, the use computers in programmed instruction led to the formation of students only narrow the knowledge and skills and the nature of the performing contributed to their transfer to the new situation, the development of creative thinking. But pedagogical technology is a process by which is a qualitative change in the impact on the student.
Instructional design methods should outline goals, training content with a description of levels of difficulty, the pedagogical methods and information tools, and assessment strategies. The use of the Internet and multimedia in education, to date, has certainly justified and overdue. Numerous studies confirm the success of the training system with the use of computers and multimedia. Students receive new information in the combined form - in hearing and vision, which increases the effectiveness of training. A computer model provides students "understand" previously unavailable objects and see how they work.
Passerini, K., & Granger, M. J. (2000). A developmental model for distance learning using the Internet. Computers & Education, 34(1), 1-15.
Smaldino, S. E., Lowther, D. L., & Russell, J. D. (2008). Instructional technology and media for learning.
Wang, S. K., & Hsu, H. Y. (2009). Using the ADDIE model to design second life activities for online learners. TechTrends, 53(6), 76-81.