Plato argues about justice in the soul based on the society, politics, and personal justice. In his books, The Republic and Five dialogues, he argues about political justice as being one unit, in terms of the body of the government. He says that, politics is like part of the body whereby each part has influence over the other. He also looks at justice in terms of society, which is made up of three main groups of people that include producers, who are craftsmen, artisans and farmers in this case. Then, he also talks of the auxiliaries who are helpers who include the warriors, and finally, the guardians who are the leaders (Plato, Five dialogues, 72). He, therefore, suggests that the society can only be just when these three groups of people are okay (Plato, Five dialogues, 72).
He explains that every party has to perform its own responsibility in the right way based on the power it has towards other members of the society. Plato believes that the leaders have to rule and the subordinate group has to support the leaders. Then, the producers ought to restrict themselves to the responsibility given to them basing on the talent they have.
According to Plato, justice is a rule of specialization, and it expects each individual to accomplish his role in the society, depending on its nature without having to affect other members of the society. In his book, The Republic, he claims that justice is like a mirror to the political justice for each individual’s soul consists of the three parts that equivalent to the three classes of a given society (Plato, The Republic, 48).
He suggests that there are three parts of the soul. One is the normal part, which only needs the truth, and is accountable for the rational inclination. Then, the second part is the a spirited, which requires respect, and takes care of the anger and resentment of an individual, and lastly, there is an appetitive part that desires for everything, especially money. He defines the individual who is just as the one who is like the society whose soul has three main parts that needs power, and has the impact on one another. In such a person, his thinking part of the soul has the power to rule, the aspirated supports the rule, then the appetitive part is ready to surrender and follow the cause and reason for a given circumstance. In other words, a just person has the whole soul that seeks to fulfill the needs of the rational part the same as the just part of the society that seeks to accomplish the responsibility assigned by the leader (Plato, The Republic, 24).
According to Plato, the philosophers are part of the group, which is knowledgeable and just. Their souls are unique and seek to accomplish the needs of the rational part of the soul. Therefore, in comparison to the unjust man like Tyrant whose interest is to rule through his greed, then Plato suggests that justice is worthy. He argues that people ought to be just he uses Tyrant as one of the representatives of the unjust, and the way that tortures other people psychologically, and he likens that to the healthy, happy, unhealthy and the calm man. He argues that even though the three aspects that are money, honor and truth have their goodness, people have to make choices, but they do not since misunderstand each aspect, but only the philosophers can feel the pinch as they have already gone through the three pleasures. He adds that people need to accept the fact that the philosopher’s pleasures are sweet and life full of justice is the best. He ends the book using a myth of Er that talks of the course of the soul when one dies. He says, “Just souls are rewarded for one thousand years, whereas the unjust are punished for one thousand years. Therefore, every soul has to choose its next life” (Plato, Five dialogues, 350).
Plato. Five Dialogues. Claremont, CA: Coyote Canyon Press, 2009. Print.
Plato. The Republic. London: Penguin, 1987. Print