Many creatures depend on reasoning because it goes hand in hand with the ability to survive. The author argues that creatures use these skills to conclude events on a certain way based on other evidence, or infer information based on experience. It helps them adapt and stay alive on earth. Basic reasoning and imagining, when applied to humans, is referred to as common sense. People usually fail to act with the direction of their common sense. For example, bank robbers may think that they can outdrive police using their Toyota Camry. Other creatures fail when the sophistication of their reasoning fails sufficiently to solve a problem or evade danger. However, humans commit mistakes because they ignore their reasoning. Reasoning helps in drawing logical conclusions that follow from the premises.
However, in most cases, people fail to arrive at valid conclusion that is not explicit in the premises. According to the article, this requires guidance of reasoning by some principles outside logic. In most cases, people make conclusions based on the formal rules of inference. As such, reasoning is not something that takes a formal process that proceeds in an automatic way. This implies that reasoning is a semantic process that depends on states of imagination of the state of affairs and finding probable examples. The search for the original idea depend many factors, but can only succeed if guided by some factors. These constraints emerge from knowledge, but knowledge alone is not sufficient. Even though everyone has information, only a few achieve in thinking of it for themselves. However, conscious information is important as it helps in the unconscious generation of ideas. The author concludes that the best method to foster creativity is to encourage individuals to create within a particular knowledge with the fundamental technique.
In conclusion, the search for original ideas depends on a number of factors but can only succeed with appropriate guidance. The invention of a new gene represents the most rare and profound form of creativity. The author argues that a musical improvisation is an example of creativity within a gene, as it does not present opportunity for amendment. It is difficult to produce an appropriate performance, as it requires reasoning. The author proposes a model that uses all the constraints of the genre in the initial stage of the creativity process, which produces a result always within the gene. Such programmed models lead to the production of music that fits within a given genre, which limits creativity. However, programs make it impossible to predict the output on situation. Despite being unpredictable, they do meet the criteria of the genre; just the same way as creative processes operates.
Maud, Hickey. Can improvisation be ‘taught’? A call for free improvisation in our schools. Northwestern University, USA.
Hickey argues that the improvisation is a disposition that should only be enabled and nurtured in schoolchildren. She does not endorse the typical ways in which improvisation is implemented in music classrooms. For instance, challenges whether teachers foster creativity through a call-and-response activity, where the quality of the student’s improvised response depends on how well it matches the aspects of the teacher’s call. Instead, Hickey advocates free improvisation, which does not require rules and depends on the students. This incorporates musicians in instantaneous exploration of sound, which requires careful reaction and listening.
I believe that the improvisation can serve as a natural means for all people to learn and make music, rather than being a specialized skill or music giftedness for jazz artists. These suggestions can give direction to music teachers in designing learning experiences for students and designing homework for them. Hickey encourages teacher to break from the cycle of applying traditional techniques in teaching music. Many argue that the answer lies in university programs for equipping teachers. Teachers should learn how to incorporate improvisation in music education, even though it has had little effect in the past. Teachers usually teach how they were taught, and this requires a change. They should adapt to new methods of teaching to enable students acquire new skills.