Article 1: Henkel Hedging
Hedges and hedging refer to a clustered of lexical and synthetic characteristics that have an aim of modifying a preposition. It displays mitigation, hesitation, uncertainty, indirectness and politeness to reduce imposition on the reader.
Academic writing written in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean speakers had epistemic median rates of hedges range from 0.79 to 0.91. Novice NS writer had 0.47 median rates while Arabic speaker has 0.30 and Vietnamese speaker had 0.47.
Grades encourage learning. To my opinion, grades help teachers and lectures come up with better teaching skills to handle his/her students. I, therefore, disagree that grades do not encourage learning.
Article 2: Schmitt & Zimmer
Understanding about word family is fundamental in language production. Word family is a base word that generates other words, for example, stimulates forms, stimulation, stimulated and simulative.
Participants in this study were 36 native-speaking university students, 50 advanced ESL students, 36 advanced ESL undergraduate and graduate students taking ESL and 20 graduate students taking masters. They perform the task with TOEFL mean score of 518
Participants from U.S universities attain TOEFL mean of 518 while MA-ELT scored a mean of 610. 37.6(SD= 9.84).16 target words×4 ×9.84) = 629.76 represent 58.2%
Results shows indicate that knowledge of one word in a family does not necessarily imply productive knowledge of other forms from the family. I disagree with the hypothesis.
Article 3: Muncie
Process writing influences the teaching of writing in ESL/ EFL class. Process writing is useful in improving the vocabulary of students especially in EFL universities.
The participants in this study were 30 students from a Japanese university. Their task was to write English Compositions inform of self-introduction.
An average of 2.5hours is spent writing draft.45 minutes are enough for a draft. Range of1-2000 and above 2000 appear to improve on their revision.
Using a process writing approach has positive attendant advantage for vocabulary learning. This elicits itself where revision during writing process registers a higher percentage of sophisticated words. I agree with the hypothesis.
Beason.L and Lester. M, A Common Sense Guide to Grammar and Usage. (4th Ed.)Boston. Bedford and Martin, 2006
Levi. I, Academic Writing: technique and tasks. (3rd Ed.) New York, Cambridge University Press, 2008
Thorndike E.L. The Teaching if English Suffixes. (13th Ed.) New York, Colombia University Teachers College, 2009