Nutrition among the premenopausal and postmenopausal is an issue of interest to scholars presently. Through these studies, scholars assess the diet quality and dietary intakes of the target group and determine whether the diets affect their health, specifically osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. The design used in the study was cross sectional study design, which entailed the use of anthropometric measurements and food records.
In carrying out the study, the pre and postmenopausal women were targeted. The methods used in the study were biochemical assessment used in general analyzing of the hormone oestrogen. A venopuncture was used to collect blood in the hospital, after which it was allowed to clot in a vacutainer tube. Centrifugation then followed , and analysis of the blood-using enzyme Immunoassay followed. Anthropometric measurements, which entailed recording of weight, height and hip circumference were taken. The height and weight were used in the calculation of BMI. In dietary assessment, each of the subjects was given a 3-day food record and advised on how to fill it.
According to the results, women from same geographical locality tended to have similar characteristics. The ones with similar occupations, socio-economic and educational backgrounds also had similar characteristics. BMI was also disputed as a way of showing risk in cardiovascular diseases in the women. Food consumption of the post and pre menopausal women did not show diverse differences. The factors that contributed to increased risk of CVDs were poor dietary intake. Increased level of potassium also indicated good quality of foods ingested.
Obesity is also another present trend being studied. Young obese girls tend to experience puberty earlier than the other girls do. It is also evidenced from research that contraception works at lower rates in obese fertile women. In France, for example, studies have shown that obese women experience unwanted pregnancies at higher rates compared to the normal women.
Obesity in women also leads to an increased effect in knee osteoarthritis. As the BMI increases above 24 by two extra units, the percentage of the woman having osteoarthritis increases by 35%. Cohort studies further give the relationship between obesity and coronary artery disease. It reveals that obesity has no direct relationship to coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease is mostly related to large waist size. That is to say, that most of the women dying from coronary artery disease have a large waist when measured. Most obese patients also suffer from arthritis compared to nonobese patients.
In conclusion, it is well evidenced that obesity mostly and negatively affects women in many negative ways. They have increased risk of diabetes, experiencing of back pains, coronary artery disease, and knee osteoarthritis. Overweight also affects contraception and women fertility. In maternal obesity, women are mostly likely to undergo caesarean section and are at higher risk of obstetrical conditions that include hypertension not to leave diabetes. Obese mothers also tend to have a low amount of desire in breastfeeding. Obese women are also at higher risk of having cancer and been always depressed.
P. G Masse, J. Dosy, C.C Tranchant R. & Dallaire,(2004) dietary macro and micro nutrient intakes of non supplemented pre- and post menopausal women with a perspective on menopause associated diseases, School of food and nutrition, Faculty of Health sciences , University of Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada.
Teresa Kulie, Andrew S, Jackie R., Helen, C, Anne E, & Sarina S, (2012) Obesity and women health- an evidence based review