Introduction to learning paper
Definition of learning Learning is a very fundamental component in the development of psychology. Learning can be defined as an aspect that creates an irreversible change of behavior. It’s also the potential that is acquired after an individual undergoes a certain experience. It is a function of the mind which is difficult to measure but it can be easily observed. The role of behavior in relation to learning Learning and behavior relates in a way that different aspects contributes to a certain outcome. Learning will contribute to the change of behavior as the experience got from it leads to potential results. For an individual to explain the learning process, he must observe the change of behavior that occurs. Fatigue and illness are variables that can change ones behavior but they do not affect the long-lasting change of behavior affected by the learning process. Experience will lead to learning and at the same time cause a change of behavior. Experience is considered an independent variable, whereas learning is an intervening variable, and they lead to behavior, the dependent variable. Experience is the adaptation of the body to the environment in ensuring that its needs are satisfied (Fischer & Dawson, 2007). The behavior of an individual will always decide the learning process that will best suit him. There can be the category of visual learners who will always learn by the use of their eyes. The tactile category is those who will learn when only they engage themselves in a practical activity. There are also those people who learn from an auditory experience where only listening is required. These are examples of different types of behaviors and how they will contribute to the learning process. A positive behavior improves the chances of perfect learning as an individual mind will concentrate to note the occurrences. We understand the psychology of an individual when we learn and analyze behavior. Behavior is mostly contributed by the environment that one’s comes from and this leads to different effects in the learning process. Personal growth and human perceptions shapes the behavior in a person and this can determine the level in which learning will take place.
It is also known as social learning theory is whereby an individual changes their behavior after watching the behavior of others (Woodruff 2001). If they see that someone has done something that is rewarding they try doing the same thing. At the end of it, they find themselves having behaviors that are similar to those of the people that they witnessed and had wished to copy. It is common for children to note the behavior of their parents and mimic them. On the other hand, adolescents emulate the behaviors of their peers and celebrities whom they are proud to be associated with. The use of advertisements is a good example of observational learning. In advertisements, people are presented as desirable thus people copy them. Observational learning is effective to many people as they find it easy see and do what they saw.
Is a learning process where one learns by connecting a neutral stimulus with another one that evokes an emotional response (Woodruff 2001). A person or an animal responds to a stimulus in the surrounding since they can associate that stimulus with something else. It is the linking of the stimuli that produces a new learned response. A good example is when a dog is made to associate the ringing of a bell with food. Any time when the bell is rung the dog will know that it is time to eat. So if the dog hears the sound of any dog, it will salivate since it will associate the ringing of the bell with food. Whoever, this type of learning is temporary. When the stimuli are withdrawn for quite sometimes, the dog will forget everything about the bell.
How learning and cognition relate
Learning refers to the ability to retain information from sources while cognition simply put, is the steps that are involved in obtaining that information or those facts. Therefore the two needs each other. For learning to take place, cognition must apply effectively (Relationship between Learning and Cognition 2006). One can improve on learning but cognition should be developed when one is still young. Cognition produces anticipation for particular outcomes and causes behavior. In human learning occur due to consequences such as training and conditioning which are based on cognitive associations.
In the absence of cognitive associations, learning remains reflexive. Example: when a child sees a cow for the first time they do not have the cognitive experience to identify the animal as a cow. If an adult identifies it for them, they then acquire the cognitive experience of cow. As time goes by, the child will see other cows and their cognitive experience will be practiced and reinforced. They can simply identify it as a cow. When the child sees four-legged animals of the size of a cow, they are most likely to identify them as “cows” until the time when they will acquire sufficient experience that will enable them identify other animals.
Coch, D., Fischer, K. W., & Dawson, G. (2007). Human behavior, learning, and the developing brain. New York: Guilford Press
Relationship between Learning and Cognition. (2006). Activities for the elderly. Retrieved June 25, 2013, from http://www.elderlyjournal.com/elderly-health/physical- examination/mental-exam/cognition/Relationship-Between-Learning-And- Cognition.html
Woodruff, A. D. (2001). The psychology of teaching. New York: Longmans, Green.