Significance of parole and probation in criminal justice in the United States
I will start by defining the key terms in this question-parole, probation, and criminal justice systems. The criminal justice system is defined as the set of organizations and methods established by the administrations to perform and fulfill special goal- imposing penalties on those who breach laws and at the same time controlling crime. It is important to note that the United States is not made up of a single criminal justice system, but it is made up of many similar personage systems. The famous question that continue to revolve in our minds on how the criminal justice system works in each area depends on the jurisdiction that is in charge. Remember that different jurisdictions in the United States have different rulings, agencies, laws, and ways of running criminal justice procedures.
I am now going to define the term probation- probation is a legal ruling whereby the convicted human being is released into the society rather than placing him or her in a restrained area such as a prison (Dressler, 1951). In spite of the reality that a human being is not in incarceration does not signify that he or she is without charge, but he or she is subjected to administration and supervision by a probation organization. What I am trying to say is that Probation is a sentence whereby a convict is released from confinement, but is still under court trials and testing’s, hence calling for the requirements of intensive supervision once these individuals are released into the society.
Finally, but not the least, I am going to define the term Parole- parole is a term used to refer to criminal lawbreakers who are temporarily rereleased from the detention center to serve the remaining bit of their verdict in the society. The parole board is responsible for releasing these prisoners into the society. Those parolees who post good behaviors and characters are also in the forefront of enjoying even more benefits such as having their supervision reduced, hence having their supervision status being moved from active to inactive (Probation & Parole, 1960).
Parole and probation are comparable in function but are linked to a different section of the criminal justice of the United States. Parole is a restrictive release from state prison while probation is forced in lieu of jail confinement. After a convict has consistently demonstrates good character and behaviors, then the probation can suspend the convict prison sentence term (Carter, 1976). This creates space in the prison facilities for that convict who has behaviors that are not up to standard in the community. By practicing these measures, we create rooms for that convict who requires permanent confinement.
The criminal justice in the United States has adopted the use of probation and parole whereby an opportunity is presented to less serious offenders to securing their freedom back to the society whereby the end up contributing to the society positively. This helps in fighting the problem of over crowdedness in the prison facilities thereby creating rooms for the more serious hardened professional criminals who need them most. This has contributed a lot in helping the government reducing its operating cost on the maintenance of prisoners since less serious offenders are released back to the community (Probation & Parole, 1960).
The American correctional association have established successful probation program that make definite the fortification of society, restore the offender by helping him or her adjusting to a lawful life in a group of people. The use of these probation programs has helped in bringing up a peaceful and friendly American community where most of the inhabitants appreciate the needs of their neighbors and appreciate their welfares. The criminal justice in the United States through the helps of the probation programs has been able to implement important and essential role in the administration of both juvenile justice and criminal justice. The criminal’s justice is responsible of overseeing the supervision of these vast majority offenders thereby reducing the chances of offenders engaging into criminal activities since they fear being taken back to prison. They end up demonstrating their best behaviors that result to a healthier society were security level is observed by all. The criminal and juvenile justice in the United States considers parole and probation as fundamental as far as judicial matters are concerned (Probation & Parole, 1960). They are expected by the judicial systems to provide a broad diversity of services that are important to the successful and well-organized operation of almost every characteristic of the justice system, ranging from law enforcement to sentencing to the discharge of offenders from incarceration into the community.
Parole and probation role in the administration of the offenders in the community is highly recommended by the United States since it has proved as having more advantages as compared to disadvantages, hence the reason probation handles the gigantic numbers of offenders (Carter, 1976). As I mentioned earlier how parole has helped in reducing the problem of overcrowding in prison facilities-it is also important to note that these programs have played a greater role in shaping the characters and behaviors’ of the parolees. They have been able to achieve this commendable task through monitoring their whereabouts.
The criminal justice in the United States expects the parolees to coerce with all laws, refrain from drugs, bunch of hooligans, to attend psychotherapy and counseling where suggested, conquer authorization if there is the need to take a trip in a foreign country, and surrenders to any car or home searches where need be for a superior society (Laurel, 1960). If the parolee does not meet these demands, he or she is expected by the judicial systems to be returned back to prison. We can, therefore, say that the presence of probations and parole plays a significant role in preventing them from engaging into illegal activities. Through the use Parole and probation programs, the convicts end up securing a chance to live in the community for a precise period, while still being monitored closely. The parolees, therefore, have a chance of allowing them to integrate more easily into the society. The parolees can engage into beneficial projects that help in improving the economy of the United States since they can contribute in the welfare of their community. The judges in the United States have the power and ability to chastise offenders through the use of community-based and transitional sanctions. The judicial systems consider the use of probation programs as a modern-day means of punishing offenders, but it only applies to those offenders who have committed non-serious offences (Dressler, 1951). The Probation programs have, therefore, been known to help the offenders in avoiding incarceration through counseling and educating them on what is expected by both the judiciary and the community in the United States. This has played a great role in reversing offenders from liabilities to assets-the offenders have become productive within the community. Some offenders have secured employment and others have become more responsible in the society to the extent of taking the role of a parent in the family setting (Probation & Parole, 1960).
The United States judicial systems views modern probation as a constructive punishment that grants offenders the aptitude to live normal productive lives, but not without the immunity of court rules and likely administration. The judicial system is more likely to give probation as a mean of punishment to offender who has committed non-serious crimes (Laurel, 1960). It also not limited to those offenders who have served a prison term, but poses no threat to the community once released. But before being released back into the society, the offenders are placed on some form of experimental rule. Once an offender attempts to violate these experimental rules, they are then subjected to probation revocation. A decision to revoke an offender’s probation falls in the hands of the judges and magistrates. Hence the judicial system has recognized the use of probation programs as another important tool that allows the use of imprisonment and its resourcefulness (Dressler, 1951).
Probation issued helps in reducing the problem of overcrowding in courts calendars’. Probation officers have done a commendable work in rehabilitating juvenile offenders (Probation & Parole, 1960).
The probation officers take the role of social case worker, whereby they acts as counselor. Their primary concern is making sure that the wellbeing of the offender is not violated. The probation officer is, therefore, expected to know how to carry out interview, how to obtain facts about an offenders background, how to come up with facts of the offenders and the resources that exist and how to make referrals to such resources are some of the requirements that the judicial systems of the United States expects the probation officers to have (Carter, 1976).
The probation officers have also the responsibility of giving importance to supervision and manage functions, holding the security of the society as a superior priority than rehabilitation since probation strives to defend the wellbeing of the society through the healing of the offender. Report has it that the Parole success rates have been stable; the first lots of parolees on the rampage are more likely to be doing well. The United States sentencing policy continues to evolve as time goes by (Probation & Parole, 1960). They have been able to come up with a wide variety of sentencing reforms that are designed with the objective of increasing imprisonment as a response to crime. Note that many states have abolished the responsibilities of parole boards, others cut back on offenders’ supervision; others have ended up releasing more prisoners directly to the community, others have enforced the conditions of parole, thereby ending up with more cases of parole violations resulting to taking the last alternative- sending these parolees back to prison. Most parole agencies in the United States have adopted the technique of drug testing as a way of determining whether a parolee has kept his or her promise to remain drug free. Some jurisdictions have recognized the importance of electronic monitoring since they require the parolees to wear electronic bracelets to ascertain whether they abide by limitations on their movement (Laurel, 1960).
The families of the parolee and the offenders’ societies enjoy numerous benefits through the use of parole. The responsibility of corrections has the authorization of shielding the community by providing compassionate and secure surroundings for offenders and personnel. These responsibilities of corrections work together with the society so as to attain the objective of providing services and programs to offenders. They also oversee the administration of offenders. Remember that the major objective of probation is to restore as well as discipline offenders. I can, therefore, say that the judicial systems of the United States has done a great role in recognizes and implementing these programs since they have impacted the welfare of the country positively. The cost of maintaining offenders who have good conducts in the prison has been cut-off. Most of the released offenders have engaged themselves into positive activities thereby building the economy (Carter, 1976).
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