Charles E. Lindblom, The Science Of “Muddling Through, 1959
THESIS: In the view of Charles E. Lindblom, limited policy analysis is used by the executive bureaucracy of U.S. The department uses rational approach to formulate the public policy. He also emphasize that the decision making process takes a long time to draw the conclusion. The decision making process includes three steps i.e. is addressing the policy issue, identifying and analyzing the alternatives, and implementation of the selected alternative. In the view of Charles E. Lindblom the enhancements and adjustments is the solution for speeding up the decision-making process for public administration policy.
A decision is considered as ‘correct’, ‘good’ or ‘rationale’ it can be presented to achieve an specified goal, where the goals can be specified without just telling the decision it self. (163)
The problem in the reality that the majority of us move toward the policy issues with in the structure specified by our sight of chain of succeeding policy choices ended up to the present. (168)
The policy driven by the system analyst would probably be the reflection of his/her own interest, the choice would be on the basis of his own maximization of values. (159)
Charles E. Lindblom presented a theory that has got a great significance in making amendments in the political system of U.S. The improvements and changes can bring a big change in the process of policy application. The author has suggested a solution of this problem in the article and emphasized on solving this problem at the initial level.
The strategy to reduce the time period of decision making process has been suggested by the author in the article. The situation analysis in the article seems appropriate. On the basis of complete situation analysis the recommendations made by the author looks best solution of issue.
Yehezkel Dror, Policy Analyst: “A New Professional Role in Government Service”, 1967
THESIS: In the view point of Yehezkel Dror, to understand the non-quantifiable issues of the system legal or regulatory system of U.S requires a policy analyst. The policy analyst will have the responsibility to make amendments in the public decision-making process to enhance the system’s standard.
The presented reforms comprise dominance of economic perspective in public decision-making (229)
A good prima facie discussion can be prepared for taking system analysis as it is and implementing it to the process of public decision-making. (230)
The policy analyst of government is required to exhibit multidimensional capabilities including effective public decision making with professional expertise and command on theory of the underlying domain. (232)
According to the Yehezkel Dror the public welfare system and public administration system needs to be improved and to bring this improvement the system needs a policy analyst who will consider the welfare of people while making a decision. The emotions and opinion of general public are not considered by the system analyst; therefore the recommendation of author regarding the requirement of policy analyst seems appropriate.
It can be anticipated that the policy analyst would have been succeeded in bringing changes in the public decision-making. At this stage it is very important for the government to analyze this fact and bring such type of professionals in the field for the public welfare.
Theodore J. Lowi, The End Of Liberalism: The Indictment, 1979
THESIS: In the view of Theodore J. Lowi, liberalism as a public philosophy has been completely replaced by interest group liberalism. The Lowi consideration throughout the article was to debate about the negative impacts of overall interest group liberalism. Lowi gave the recommendation for the replacement of interest group liberalism by a juridical democracy in order to re-develop the law structure of U.S.
The rise of public philosophy as a consequence of liberalism of interest group led to the corruption in contemporary setup of democratic government. (277)
The liberalism setup in the twentieth century is criticized for its ill standardized plans. (277)
The fight of interest groups against centralized authority in democracy only succeeded against the element of authoritativeness. (280)
The suggested solutions of Theodore J. Lowi are providing the basis for developing a new or enhanced system. The central thought of the author in the article is basically highlighting the need of replacement of interest groups for the welfare of public. A system of juridical democracy can be developed on the basis of this idea of the author.
John W. kingdom, How Does An Idea’s Time Come? Agendas, Alternatives And Public Policies, 1995
THESIS: According to John W, kingdom, a new approach to identify the problems is to ask form the general public. Once the public gives its opinion then asks them to suggest the solution of the problem. In the consideration of public opinion regarding the problem and solution the regulator authorities makes the strategy which is completely resolving the concern.
The domain of political science is considered as untidy among all the domains of social sciences. (454)
Instrumentalism is used to evaluate the proposal or policy changes gradually, but it doesn’t have the capability to explain the unexpected agenda change. (458)
The politics or problems set the agendas, and the alternatives for the solution are made in the policy stream. (459)
John W, kingdom has provided the recommendations for the improvement of public administration. In his view the improvements can bring positive changes in the political system of the country. The suggested process for the improvement of public decision-making seems very supportive for the government of U.S to restructure the system.
The suggestion of structure amendment concerning the formulation of public policies is appropriate because the information will be gathered form the general public and some other sources. The public perception will provide the ground realities and their suggestions about the prevailing problems will help to design the public policy.
Deborah stone, Policy Paradox: The Art Of Political Decision Making, 1997, 98
THESIS: In the view of Deborah stone it is not improper realization of fact to treat policy analysis and policy making in the different context. The idea of policy contradiction demonstrates that the politics can never be taken outside the boundary of analysis. Deborah stone has a constant attention on spotting out that how real-world policy grows out of conflicting ideals, even definition, of essential goals for humanity like public security, parity, and liberty.
The best consideration for paradoxes is trouble. (591)
The fields of public administration, political science, policy analysis and law are working with a common objective of securing the public policy from the illogicalities and humiliations of politics and politicians in the country. (593)
The objective of political reasoning is to provide a strategic plan for policy and it should not be confused with simple beautification of idea. (595)
According to Deborah stone’s view, political analysis has become the necessity for making right decisions. It is purely for the solution of political concerns. The author suggests that paradoxes need to understand in their own context. This thought of Deborah stone has created her value in the study of political sciences.
The objective of the author of analyzing every paradox in its own context by the political analysts seems the best solution for analyzing the problems in the system. Another objective of the author is ‘Rationality project misses the point of politics’; this objective is recommended with the purpose of highlighting the unfairness with the public by untidy politics.