Nursing research falls under two comprehensive worldviews. These are naturalistic paradigm and positivist paradigm, which have reality assumptions and world views that oppose each other. For instance, regarding to the reality, naturalistic paradigm have multiple realities, which changes continually hence make it very hard to measure whereas the positivists believe in existence of a single reality that can essentially me measured.
The two crucial categories of research methods are thus qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research in most cases aligns itself with naturalistic paradigm while quantitative research aligns with positivist paradigm. Qualitative research is more subjective, informal, and an inductive approach to solving the problems. On the other hand, quantitative research is objective, formal, and deductive approach to solving the problems (Burns 2003). The research question or questions guide the researches on which method he or she should use. With this knowledge, it is now possible to compare the two articles and decide whether they are qualitative or quantitative research and answer the required questions.
“Are patients with or at risk of pressure ulcers allocated appropriate prevention measures?” article
This is a quantitative research paper. There are a number of reasons why this article is a quantitative research. For one, the reality being tested is measured since we are told that the variables associated with the appropriate pressure ulcer preventions are measured. Thus, this research involves numbers and the statistical analyses. The focus of the article is narrow and concise. Furthermore, the deductive reasoning is used in synthesizing the collected data (Polit and Beck 2004). The following guide helps in analyzing this article critically.
The research problem or research question in this research is actually answered. The research applied all the basic requirements of a quantitative research hence this helped to answer the research question (Nieswiadomy 2008). We also realize that majority of patients who have pressure ulcers or at risk did not actually get the prevention measures that are appropriate while in bed or chair hence this directly answers the question.
Issues of validity and reliability are not discussed. This research paper only mentions how reliability and validity was strengthened. These were strengthened by using two RNs in patients’ examination.
In this research, the study sample is large enough that is fundamental in providing reliable results. The sample size was 732 patients and this sample was large enough to give results that are correct and trustworthy.
The ethical issues are not discussed in detail. Concerning these imperative issues in any research, the article only mentions that patients were informed that every data set was going to be anonymous or confidential and were also asked to give their verbal consent (Burns 2003). Therefore, the research fails to elaborate the ethical issues into details.
The ethical approval was actually obtained. It was obtained from Research Ethics Committee of medicine faculty from Uppsala University.
The study results are generalized. The observations from the sample are used to generalize. Thus, a sample that is a statistic is used to generalize the condition in the entire population.
The recommendations for the practice are also made. The research recommends that regular inspection of the skin and identification of non blanchable erythema have to be highlighted as crucial nursing tasks among other recommendations.
In a nutshell, this research possesses many of the fundamental qualities of a quantitative research. It is presented in a professional manner hence it is readable. For that reason, it is a useful research for nursing practice.
“The lived experience of constipation in cancer patients in palliative hospital- based home care” article
This is a qualitative research paper. This is because we are told that a qualitative phenomenological approach was utilized. In addition, the reasoning used in synthesizing the data is inductive. This research paper also develops an existing theory hence it is a qualitative research. The following guide is useful in critically analyzing this article.
In this article, the method is satisfactorily described. We understand that the research utilized a phenomenological approach. The aim of using this approach was to attempt to reach essence of the experiences of the individuals in the constipation phenomenology. The data that was used so as to achieve this objective was the interview data (Nieswiadomy 2008).
This method is in fact appropriate to the research problem or question. This is because the method was used to establish individuals’ experiences in constipation and this is the research problem.
However, the ethical issues are not essentially discussed into detail. Only the concept of written consent is mentioned without much discussion. Thus, this forms a weakness of this qualitative research.
The ethical approval was actually obtained. We are told that the research was approved by Faculty of Health Sciences’ Research Ethical Committee from Linkoping University.
The process of participant selection is well explained. The research participants were selected using purposeful sampling. This is a sampling method where a sample is selected by a researcher having a certain purpose in mind (Speziale and Carpenter 2007). In this research, those individuals thought that they could provide the necessary rich information about constipation experiences were purposefully selected. In addition, nurses and doctors used their clinical knowledge to search the participants. They also used this knowledge to look the participants in nursing and medical records.
The research also explores the experience of the participants. The study established criteria for participants’ inclusion, criteria that shows that participants’ experience is explored. For instance, for a participant to be included, he or she was supposed to have disseminated cancer disease and in addition have experienced constipation in the cancer trajectory. Moreover, a participant was supposed to have been admitted to palliative home care unit and be in steady state with both psychological and physical capacity to participate. For that reason, it is clear that there is exploration of the participant’s experience.
Furthermore, the process of establishing research findings is clear. Starting with data collection then data analysis, the study explains the steps that were taken to establish the research findings. We are told that the analysis followed steps that are outlined by Giorgi (Speziale and Carpenter 2007). In addition, the authors separately analyzed the interviews and then compared the findings, looking at both differences and similarities until an agreement was reached.
In the discussion, the concepts of credibility and trustworthiness are discussed. In fact, this study clearly brings out the reactions of the participants towards the problem of constipation hence this proved the credibility and trustworthiness of the study.
The recommendations for the practices are also made in this study. The research recommends that palliative care professionals should manage constipation. It also recommends that for people to avoid the unnecessary suffering, they need both constipation assessment and nutritional assessment. Additionally, nurses must take patient’s own history; ask the relevant questions about routines, usual eliminatory habits, changes in patterns, and fluid intake. Moreover, the assessment must be a reliable and valid process, which identifies the needs and problems of the patient. The research also suggests a number of useful assessment tools that are available. These include Constipation Assessment Scale, Constipation Scoring System, and Patient Constipation Assessment.
Burns, N., & Grove, S. K. (2003). Understanding nursing research. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2004). Nursing research: Principles and methods. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Nieswiadomy, R. M. (2008). Foundations of nursing research. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Speziale, H. S., & Carpenter, D. R. (2007). Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.