Abortion, the deliberate or spontaneous act of inducing labor and removal of the fetus from the womb, has always been there from time immemorial and will always be , despite the strict laws and penalties posed by many nations of the world. According to the British Broadcasting Corporation journals, BBC (1987), the very act of abortion dates back as far as 1550. The ancient world of the Romans and Greek are reported to have been practicing abortion. Greece in particular seemed to be in many records of abortion practices.
In this ancient era, the countable elective abortions were mainly induced by the use of the herbs. The plant fiber tampons were majorly used for this purpose Burkey (1998). As the time went by, a little sophistication came in and the abortionists discovered more effective medical plants such as the Silphium and the Pennyroyal. The surgical abortion which overtook these ancient induction methods came to play towards the end of the 19th century BBC (1987).Among the many reasons as to why many expectant mothers opt for abortion are as follow:
The first reason is the ‘unwanted’ pregnancy. This is the unpreparedness by the mother or sometimes both the parents of the unborn baby. In most cases ladies conceive without their awareness and when they suddenly realize that they are pregnant, they think of eliminating the foreign life from the womb. Reason: the lady might feel that it is too early for her to sire a child and that it may cut her youth short; maybe she wants to further her studies.
The second reason for abortion is the endangered health of the expectant mother. That is the case of the Ectopic pregnancy Vicken et al (2012). This is where the embryo is implanted on the either the fallopian tube or on the ovaries. Such pregnancies are very risky both to the mother and to the fetus as it will never develop to a maturity stage. The fetus will end up dieing in such locations and may terminate the life of the mother as well. In that case, the pregnancy is better terminated as earlier as possible.
In the United States of America, the Centre for Disease Control, CDC, reports that actually many abortions, than any other place in the world, are carried out in the nation. Despite the slight decline in the reported cases since the year 1973, abortion still seems to be rampant as some cases go unnoticed. “The highest annual abortion cases reached its highest in the year 1990; over 1.6 million reported cases. However, the number has slightly dropped and is currently trending at 1.1 million annually” CDC (2012, p 21).
In the world of today, following the rising concern by the citizens and the pro-life activists, many governments have made a swift move to curb the increasing cases of abortion by enacting very harsh laws and subsequent penalties of up to life imprisonment. A good example is the Great Britain in the early 80s BBC (1987).
These restriction laws have been put in place because abortion is not a morally upright practice in the society. For one, the innocent unborn baby is killed. No one has the right to take another one’s life; the civil law dictates so. The many religion groups do not support this act as well. This is murder. But here is the big question: if the pro-lifers term abortion as murder, should the mothers aborting be accused as murderers and the cases be treated as homicide? Many nations, though strongly prohibit abortion, still are sceptic about this. In the late 19th century, the UK formulated a law that would see any abortionist serve very long terms, even life sentence in jail BBC. The mild punishment would be whipping or even pillory. Abortion was actually treated like a major felony.
Abortion may also leave the ex-mother with very adverse psychological effects. Many of those who opt for abortion are usually tortured in the mind and some lose mental stability for such a long time and are forced to seek rehabilitation.
Lastly, abortion may generally deteriorate the health of the mother as a resultant effect. During abortion, many women tend to lose a lot of blood as many tissues are damaged. They therefore undergo a lot of pain that if not well attended to may lead to los of their own lives. Many women have died in the process of abortion, making abortion a double stroke; losing the baby and the mother.
In summation, abortion is not morally upright and should be condemned to the strongest term possible. All nations of the world should advocate against this inhuman act.
British Broadcasting Corporation (1987) Abortion in History, London
Burkely, J. (1998) Herbal Abortifacients, New Orleans
Centre for Disease Control (2012) Pregnancy –related Mortality in the USA, New York
Vicken, S.& Walker, T. (2012) Ectopic Pregnancy, New York
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The American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style is commonly used in the documentation of the Social sciences. This is because the Social sciences put a lot emphasis on the dates of documentation, and APA citation entails recording of dates in the physical text, usually placed after the author’s name. The general format for the APA style in the list of “References” follows this order: the author name, the year of publication, the title of the publication, place of publication and, the publisher. For example:
Orator, J. (2014). Communication Skills. California, Longhorns
The Modern Language Association (MLA) on the other hand, is usually used in the citation of the Humanity courses. It is because Humanity documentation emphasizes on the authorship and the MLA style does exactly that. At the end of a document, the list of authors is entitled “Works Cited”. Here, the author name still comes first but, the year of publication comes last after the publisher. Example:
Orator, Joseph. Communication Skills. California, Longhorns. 2014. Print
The Chicago referencing style has in most instances been used in the citation of the History courses. History stresses on the source of origin of work. The Chicago style highlights this in the footnotes and endnotes. The formation of the reference list is almost to that of MLA style only that it does not include the type of the work cited e.g. Print. Example:
Orator, Joseph. Communication Skills. California, Longhorns, 2014.
Note that all the three styles include the author, the publication and the years. The difference comes in the order and the punctuation.
George, T. (2007) Common Referencing Styles. Chicago.
Owl Perdue Library (2014) Retrieved from http://ww.owlperdue.com