Structure and Function of lobes in the cerebral cortex
In human brain, the largest part is the cortex. This part has the task of undertaking functions, which include action and thought. Human brain cerebral cortex comprises of four sections identified as lobes; temporal lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and occipital lobe. Temporal lobe has the role of perception, as well as recognition of memory, speech, and auditory stimuli. Parietal lobe on its own is linked to the movement, stimuli perception, recognition, and orientation. The frontal lobe is associated with problem solving, emotions, movement, parts of speech, planning, and reasoning. Finally, occipital lobe has the role of visual processing (Bennet, & Bennet, 2008). Wrinkling of the cerebral cortex ensures that the brain has the ability to attain a higher efficiency since it is possible to increase neurons and surface area of brain.
Einstein’s Parietal Lobes
In Einstein’s brain parietal lobes, they were longer in comparison to the control group. Further, Sylvian fissure morphology of Einstein’s brain had an element of uniqueness when compared to the control group. The Sylvian fissure posterior end had an anterior position, which did not have parietal operculum. As such, Einstein’s brain was a bit wider by 15% than the control group. Inferior parietal expansion of Einstein’s brain was also recorded among other mathematicians and physicists (Witelson et al., 1999). These include Siljestrom and Gauss. In normal cases, parietal regions depict asymmetric anatomy, but for the case of Einstein’s brain, there was a symmetric anatomy of the parietal lobes. This was evidenced by the ability of the left parietal lobe attaining a larger size behold the normal expected size, which resembled the right hemisphere in morphology and size.
Inferences from Brain Autopsy
Brain autopsy aids in reconstituting the psychological environment of how brain development occurs in our social settings. This includes comprehending changes, which are anticipated in the overall process of brain development as individual focus and engage in different careers. On the same note, brain autopsy aids in gathering data related to the death of an individual, life trajectory, social context, family background, mental or physical health history, working conditions, and social interaction. In addition, it is clear that cognitive domains keep on developing, but their level of development is not the same among all the individuals.
Do the lobes in the cerebral cortex affect the functionality of left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum?
This study will aid in comprehending why there is a difference in the functionality of both left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum. The hypothesis for this study is that the lobes in the cerebral cortex are divided such that each hemisphere of the cerebrum has its own independent function. This hypothesis is falsifiable by conducting an experiment to investigate why the different sides of the cerebrum hemisphere have independent functions. Conducting an experiment for this study is essential in order to gather first-hand data, which will be suitable for making the relevant inferences on the same. Further, the experiment will create room for manipulating variables in order to ensure that the research has the ability and potential to attain the desired data.
The anticipated sample population for this study is individuals in the age groups of 30-40 years, 40-50 years, and 50-60 years. This group is selected since it is believed that at this age the human brain has undergone complete development and is able to perform its functions effectively. As such, the lobes will have assumed their roles effectively. Probability random sampling will be adopted for this study. This will ensure that the researcher does not dictate on the study participants. For each age group, two participants will be involved; one male and one female.
Ethical factors will be taken into consideration in this study to ensure that potential expectancy and experimenter effects are mitigated against effectively. This study will not need a control group since it will be based on investigation of the functionality of left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum.
Data, which will be corrected, will be analyzed and the proposed hypothesis tested. This will create room for ruling out any form of alternative data explanations. Nevertheless, literature related on the same will be consulted in order to determine the validity of the findings from the experiment. The measurements will focus on identification of the lobe sizes and types as they are found in each hemisphere of the cerebrum. The data collected will then be compiled for the purpose of statistical and theoretical analysis. This study will be of significant use to most scientists; as such, this study focuses on considering ethical issues such as honesty, integrity, objectivity, confidentiality, non-discrimination, respect for colleagues, competence, and human subjects’ protection.
Who has a similar brain to Albert Einstein?
In a study to investigate Einstein’s brain, a control group of 35 male and 56 females was established in McMaster University Witelson Normal Brain Collection. The brains used in this research were obtained from volunteers deemed to have normal cognitive ability, normal psychiatric status, and normal neurological status. For all the cases, informed consent of necropsy and testing was obtained. The study involved conducting a quantitative measure of both control group brains and Einstein’s brain. These measures were done directly by the use of calipers while some measures were based on calibrated photographs. The measures focused on all variables such as corpus callosum size and weight and brain dimensions.
The results obtained revealed that for most cases most measures of Einstein’s brain were statistically similar to the measures of the control group. However, Einstein’s brain depicted a statistical difference on the size of the parietal lobes where Einstein’s brain had parietal lobes, which were 15% wider in comparison to the control group. Further, Einstein’s brain was more spherical in comparison to the brains of the control group. In addition, Einstein’s parietal lobes depicted a symmetrical anatomy, which is different from the normal asymmetrical anatomy.
This study revealed that Einstein’s brain anatomy was at normal limits, but the parietal lobes depicted a significant difference. This illustrates that the expansion of Einstein’s’ parietal lobes is related to his exceptional intellectual level for his scientific thinking. Such expansions are also noted among mathematicians and physicists like Siljestrom and Gauss. As such, it is evident that variation in cognitive functions of a human brain may occur due to the ability of brain structure to mediate such functions. Further, visuospatial intelligence may be related to the parietal cortex anatomical features.
This study depicts how the intelligence of neurobiological substrate may be resolved through taking an effective comparison of control groups and extreme cases. Albert Einstein brain presents one of the extreme cases, which has not yet found a partner. The question is who could be the next intellectual giant after Albert Einstein?
Bennet, A., & Bennet, D. (2008). “The human knowledge system: Music and brain
coherence.” VINE, 38(3), 277-295.
Witelson, S, Kigar, D, & Harvey, T. (1999). The Exceptional Brain of Albert Einstein.