This paper explores the impact of immigration policies on immigrant and refugee communities in Canada under the temporary foreign workers program, and how it poses challenges and problems of immigration and refugee in Canada. This article offers insights on the nuances of poor and the underprivileged people, especially in the context of foreign workers. Further, this paper examines the implementation of immigration policies on immigrant and refugee communities in order to analyze the problems and solutions of immigration and refugee, and their inter-relationships. This policy plays a key role in empowering and redefining the life of people and their future growth. Ultimately, what matters most in our life is the quality of life, and it is a defining parameter for socio-economic development. Due to this reason, I have chosen this significant topic on temporary foreign workers program for further interpretation and analysis in the context of refugees and immigrants.
The purpose of this study is to identify the elements and features of immigration policies on immigrant and refugee communities in Canada under the temporary foreign workers program, and find solutions to this problem for refugees under the temporary foreign workers program in future. Keeping this fact and challenges into account, this policy of temporary foreign workers program was launched for the people who immigrate or take shelters as refugee in Canada.
Significance and background of the study
It goes without saying that life without quality of life is of no relevance. The very purpose of living is defeated if there is an absence of quality infrastructure that can sustain the need of life, learning, and future challenges. One of the challenges of modern times is immigration policies and their impact on immigrant and refugee communities in Canada. Undoubtedly, the matter becomes a cause of concern for anyone if it is degraded by the human minds. In this modern age of globalization, economic boom, and information explosion, building a peaceful and prospective future academically and financially in the developed country like Canada is the crying need of hour. Everyone wants to come to this place for their better future. But, due to the burden on social infrastructures, it is becomes very difficult to provide quality services to the poor refugees and immigrants. In this background, the real challenge lies in making the quality and reliable service to foreign workers. And, it is a deep cause of concern for the society, administrators, policy makers, and planners not only in Canada but also in the entire world. This research demands the urgent need to examine the issues pragmatically and design a comprehensive plan for its solutions by involving all the stakeholders of refugees, society, policy makers, and researchers, and administrators in the interest of immigration and refugees in Canada . Using these comprehensive planning and strategy will enable us to find out the ways and means to mitigate the impact of the loopholes in the immigration policies for immigrant and refugee communities in Canada. And, it will further ensure awareness for a quality life quotient level among the general public, especially the poor lot in Canada. Therefore, according to the guidelines and policy decisions of the Canadian government, this policy is intended to benefit the poor, refugees, and underdeveloped sections of the society.
Characteristics of the research
As part of the description, interpretation and explanation of the research process, it has been decided to collect the sample data for an area which has remained ignored and isolated from the universal right of quality life management and protection system. The area selected for sample study is the region of Southern Newfoundland and the capital city – Ottawa - which are mushrooming with the problems of poor management of life for the refugees and immigrants. Based on various reliable data, it has been found that people are vulnerable and susceptible to the possible harm caused due to inefficient interaction resulting from developmental problems, personal incapacities, disadvantaged social status, and insufficient interpersonal networks. In this context, there is a need to introspect the issues of migration and refugees in the broader perspectives in order to ensure quality service by the administrative agencies, policy makers, and planners.
Description of the area of research
The focus of the study is the impact of immigration policies on immigrant and refugee communities in the capital town and the southern Newfoundland. In addition, there is a need to identify its causes and solutions, involvement of risk, preventive measures, budgetary assistance, and accountability of administrative and establishment of temporary foreign workers program machinery to implement the policy and program. In the light of this immigration and refugee challenges, the government of Canada has focused on supporting them in order to uplift their quality of life in various ways.
Critical Analysis of Policy
With a view to bringing about changes in their conditions of quality life, special attention is being paid on the children below the age of 5 years. And, among these immigrants and refugees, the most vulnerable lot is the female children who are generally ignored and discriminated.
Westhues' (2000) study found the following:
In practice, however, immigrants experience landed immigrants status and citizenship differently because of discrimination and prejudice in Canadian society. While each group of immigrants has its own experience of discrimination and prejudice, people from visible minority background generally continue to be perceived as immigrants, regardless of their length of stay in Canada. (p.351)
In the light of their poor economic conditions, the central government has made its policy clear by saying that it is not right to have the two worlds where the children, especially the poor lot of the Newfoundland, especially from the blacks or non-natives, are divided on the basis of the race, poverty, and poor earning. Although, we have enough resources that need to be judiciously managed to provide quality life to the poor lot, there is a lack of political, social, and financial will-power to provide quality infrastructure and services to the temporary foreign workers. It requires all-round overhauling of systems so that the benefits reach at the doorstep of the poor and the needy. Sooner or later, this requires an urgent attention of the governmental and non-governmental agencies towards ameliorating their disadvantaged status in life and society.
Tentative questions of the research
The problems of immigration and refugees’ problems highlight the need to understand the nuances and apply a concerted effort to deal with this issue. But, this raises many questions that deserve to be answered. Some of these questions are:
a) What do you understand by the term “immigration” and “refugees?”
b) What are features and types of “immigration” and “refugees?”
c) What are the possible problems of effective management for immigrants and refugees?
d) What are the socio-political solutions for this problem?
e) What are the suggestions recommended by the planners and policy makers?
f) What are the procedures and investigations needed to root out this problem?
g) What kind of social and administrative awareness is needed to mitigate the impact of the of loopholes and lapses in the foreign workers program?
h) What should be the role of the government administrative and administrative officials?
i) How should the government devise the special plan, policy, and program for the poor and immigrant children?
j) What preventive measures are necessitated to provide quality service of life under the
foreign workers program?
Objective of the research
k) In view of these questions, the objective of the research is to find answers to these questions by collection some invaluable data, list out the problem areas, develop a strategy to deal with the problem areas of the immigration and refugees, and finally
define the process and procedures of effective management under the foreign workers program.
Hypotheses of the research
It is being hypothesized that the efficient process of data collection, interpretation, analysis will pave the way finding out the root problems and take suitable measures to deal with the endangering challenges in Canada in the second half of 20th century. According to Westhues (2000), "Government policy began to change during the first half of the 1960s, signaling a movement toward the removal of restriction on nationality-based immigration, although preference remained for Caucasian immigrants" (p.353). All these analyses and preventive measures will play a key role to eradicating the problems of immigrant and refugee communities in Canada and improving their overall quality of life.
Method and procedure of Data Collection and Analysis
In order to carry out the process of data collection, the specified region was divided in terms of class, economic status, immigration, refugee, race, and education level. Further, a questionnaire was prepared seek answers from each person or family. These questionnaires dealt with the nature of problems of immigrations and challenges of refuges. With a view to ascertain the administrative facts of problems, a qualified and competent administrative professional accompanied during the data collection and helped in identifying the nature of refugees’ problems. The collected data were sampled on various parameters of age, class, region, economic status, race, and gender of all the immigrants and refugees, and finally analyzed in multiple permutation and combination of these defined parameters so as to arrive at the result flawlessly in future for finding the root reasons and the ultimate solutions of the stated problems.
Presentation of results
Canada has always endeavored hard to bring about quality changes in the policy of immigration and refugee. According to Westhues(2000), "In 1994, the federal government held public consultations to decide future directions for immigration and refugee policy" (p.356). Based on the collection of data, analyses, results, some of the initiatives needed to be highlighted under the temporary foreign workers program are:
a) Issue of temporary Visa for dependents and family members
b) Recruitment of professionals workers for our clients
c) Offer of professional expertise and best deal for peaceful and quality settlement
d) Assistance in buying home and vehicle
e) Arrangement of loan, insurance cover, and health insurance
f) Searching of job for prospective employment
g) Application for Independent/Federal Skilled Worker
h) Certification process of Experience Class
i) Issue of Work Permits, student permit, and sponsorships for Family Class
j) Authorization of Live-in Caregivers
k) Round-the-clock legal and judicial services in all the courts for any problems of generic nature and Immigration-related matters
l) Facilitation of Super Visa for Parents and other family members
m) Issue of Visitor/Tourist Visa if needed
n) Legal and Academic Support from Experts
o) Issue of temporary Visa for dependents and family members
p) Career guidance and counseling and health awareness.
Problems and Challenges of Refugees and Immigrants
There are multiple layers of the problems these people face. Some of the common problems of these people are:
a) Poor quality of living due to poor economic condition
b) Disturbed social and economic life of the immigrants and refugees
c) Lack of economic development of the area
d) Lack of emphasis on education and training for making them employable
e) Lack of government initiatives in social and infrastructural sectors
f) Absence of other source of income
Effects of the Problems
As a result of these problems faced by the poverty and mismanagement of resources by the administrative agencies, some of the common impacts of these problems on immigrant and refugee communities are:
a) Malnutrition or poor food quality
b) Corruption in government systems
c) Consumption of alcoholic products
d) Disease and poor health
e) Infighting and adulterated activities
f) Poor life expectancy of the people and poor sanitation
g) Lack of resources for sustaining the life
h) Psychological disorder and mental disturbance
i) Crime and corruption
Based on these ill-effects of their poor management of resources by the government agencies under the temporary foreign workers program, it is good to analyze these facts systematically from multiple angles. In order to provide relief to these under-developed people, here are some suggestions for initiating suitable actions. There are listed under the following headings:
a. Application for Independent/Federal Skilled Worker
Migrants should be given work experience for any employability in the labor market of Canada generally apply under this category. There is an obligatory need for the applicant to meet standard criteria so as to be eligible for immigration under the category of the Skilled Worker. Westhues'(2000) study found the following:
Through regulatory changes, racial discrimination was eliminated as the basis for selecting immigrants; in addition, the point system was introduced in an attempt to bring justice and fairness to the immigration process, as well as to meet the needs of the country. (p.353)
These standard immigration criteria are based on a point system for any interpretation and recognition.
b. Recognition of Permanent Residence for Entrepreneurs, investors, and Self-Employed
The Refugees Immigration Program adopts a strategic policy of bringing about the economic development and employment generation in these countries by attracting people who possess rich intellectual, capital, business, and entrepreneurial skills.
c. Work Permits
Immigrants, who do not possess citizenship and permanent residency, but who intend to temporarily settle and work in these countries for the purpose of employment, could be given a Work Permit. This permit is for formal work permission for any employment.
d. Sponsorships for Family Class
Immigrants, who have a close relative possessing a Citizenship or Permanent Residency of these countries, can apply for the purpose of family reunification. For this, there is no need for the applicants to meet the criteria of either point system or discretionary selection required in the application of other categories. In this case, applicants are both sponsored and provided assistance by their relatives for their safe, happy, and prosperous establishment in these countries. For the sponsorship of family class, the members of the family who could only be sponsored, are:
a) Spouses, common-in-laws or conjugal partners who are 16 years old or more
b) Children who are either dependent or adopted
c) Children, under the age of 18, whom you wish to adopt
d) Children who are under guardianship
e) Family members such as brothers, sisters, nephews, nieces or orphaned grand-children who are both unmarried and below 18 years of age.
Issue of Temporary Resident Visa
Immigrants who want to come to Canada temporarily for either tour & pleasure or business assignments, can apply for this type of visa. On the one hand, this type of Temporary Resident Visas is not required to enter these countries for foreign nationals who are residents of specific countries. On the other hand, foreign Nationals of all other countries are obligatorily required to obtain a Temporary Resident Visa before they wish to enter these countries. If Spouses and other dependents of foreign nationals wish to reside temporarily in these countries, could also be asked to obtain a Temporary Resident Visa, based on their origin of their country to which they belong. Administrative and budgetary research
All these analyses and their effective implementation will benefit the common people immensely. For this, the role of the administrative and financial department of the local government and federal government of Canada plays a key role in overcoming the problems of birth defects and health-related problems of refugees and immigrants. Presently, the federal and the local government have earmarked 5% of their funds for the immigration management. But, the gravity of refugees situations demand that the government but now they should allocate 10% extra funds to the infrastructure department in their budget plan. If necessary, the administrative department should establish a monitoring agency to ensure the use of allotted funds to needy immigrant people, the poor and the refugee people, for creating a quality infrastructure and awareness program. Furthermore, the government should plan to initiate an extensive research programs in future for the establishment of quality infrastructures in the backward regions of the state where they live.
Credentials of the researcher and associated personnel
For this research work on the impacts of immigration policies on immigrant and refugee communities in Canada in a specified locality, I owe special thanks to all the persons, teachers, local authority, friends, family members for their constant support and patient guidance during the process of data collection, sampling, analysis and findings. In addition, I would like to extend my special thanks to my teacher and family members in helping me in accomplishing this research assignment. Without their support, it could not have been possible to successfully complete this research analysis on temporary foreign workers program.
In the light of the aforesaid facts and analyses on the impacts of immigration policies on immigrant and refugee communities, it can be, undoubtedly, assumed that poor management of resources by the governmental and non-governmental is really an unjustifiable and unacceptable. Blaming the refugees or the underprivileged sections of the society for this type of immigration policies problems is not logical. It is to be believed that education, awareness, economic development, quality infrastructure by the Canadian government will create a positive difference in their life. So, time has come for us to discuss positive elements and remove a sense of differences faced due to poor planning of immigration management. So, let us build a society or a world where there is no birth effects due to poor health and poverty to make our life happy, progressive, honest, and prosperous in a true sense.
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4. University of Ottawa (July 21, 2011.) Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women. Retrieved from http://www.criaw-icref.ca/ImmigrantandRefugeeWomen
5. Nakache, Delphine and Kinoshita, J. Paula . IRPP STUDY: The Canadian Temporary
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