Differences between efficient and group-level explanations for war
The efficient explanation for war is centered and derived from the constitution as well as from the legal structures within an entity. This means that wars are constitutionally appropriate if the lives of the citizens are threatened by an outside entity. This means that the decision to engage in war is independent on social or other cultural background (Danziger 35). The group-level decision is centered on the idea of dominance. Countries decide to engage in war for reasons that are defined buy cultural and social differences. Countries are therefore in a rush to enter into war with other countries, not to protect their citizens as the law stipulates.
Clausewitz's definition of war
According to Clausewitz, the definition of war was that war is as forceful that which is meant to compel the enemies of the attacking country to do according to the will of the attacking country. The other definition is that war is the clash between major interests in the globe. The clash is mainly resolved through bloodshed and it is the bloodshed that differentiates war with other conflicts (Grimsley 1). The word war dates back in 1050 and its origins is mostly from the Romans who engage in frequent combat. The strategies used in these definitions are used to outline the greatest part of the fight in the war zones. Clausewitz outlined these definitions and they have been in operation for many years past.
Disarmament and Arms Control
The difference between these two terms lies in the implementations and the frameworks covering the practices. Disarmament refers to the reduction in the number of arms or weapons that are maintained and run by any government (Net Industries 1). The process /also involves the troops that should be run by any sovereign state. Arms Control on the contrary is the provisions in the treaties that are present between potential foes and these treaties are meant to reduce any tension or possibilities of war. Disarmament conferences and treaties began in the late 18th century while arms control dates back to 1675 when the first international agreement was concluded limiting the use of chemical weapons globally. The other difference is that while in disarmament the countries are limited on the amount of troops and weaponry, arms control can determine for one party to have more arms that the other.
Nuclear non-proliferation treaty
The nuclear proliferation treaty is an international agreement that has been signed by man y countries from all over the world and it is aimed at ensuring that nuclear weapons are not spread in a manner that may cause harm to the rest of the world. The nuclear treaty is aimed at disarming the countries which have been found to be engaging in nuclear projects and whose objectives have been perceived as hazardous to the world. The nuclear acts originated from the Baruch plan that sort inspection and of nuclear programs the agreement was originally enacted in 1953.
Although this treaty was opened in 1968, it was legally enacted in 1970 and its only Israel, India and Pakistan who have never been signatories to this treaty. North Korea, which had been a member, withdrew from the treaty in 2003, after being subjected to a lot of pressure from the participating members of the treaty to end its nuclear program.
Role of culture in strategy
Culture is a very influential aspect in strategy formation and decision-making processes. This is due to its personal connection with the individuals portraying these different cultures. One of the influences is in social cultures. Different individuals have their own taste and social perspectives of certain issues. From these perspectives, the individuals make decisive actions based on their perceptions as well as on their social understanding (Tadjbakhsh and Chenoy 26). The values are also pre-determinants in strategy formulation and in conflicts management. The differences in moral and cultural obligations are effective in determining the strategies formulated in conflicts management. The conservatives’ way of thinking and arguments differ with that of the individualistic thinker. These aspects coupled with beliefs and personal variables influence the decisions being made by individuals on matters pertaining to strategy formulation.
Technological determinism in strategic thought
According to the technological determinism theory, the humans shape the tools to use in their daily lives and the tools in turn shape our own actions. Through this definition, technology is perceived as being autonomous in the same manner as the weather. This means that the influence of technology in our lives is less likely to be limited or controlled by humans (Huster 1). This is despite the fact that it is the humans who shape this technology. From these illustrations, strategic thought is derived from the pressure of technology to stay afloat with the changing world and as such, each individual strives to be in touch with the current trend. From this flow of ideas and concepts, the world experiences a wave of change that is characterized by a blind and subconscious urge to remain afloat and competitive in our endeavors.
Copenhagen School of security studies
The Copenhagen school of security studies is a school in Copenhagen that couples as a branch of the University of Copenhagen. The school originated from Bill McSweeney who is credited for its name 'Copenhagen School'. In addition, the school origins in global relations theorist Barry book states and fear. This institution serves as the center for security as well as a research facility that is managed by the department of political science. The theories that are developed within the research center are aimed at improving the development of the securization, which is purely mandated to observe and make better the security standards of the university and the region at large.
The center has Ole Waever. Phd as its director, who has been vibrant in ensuring that the center met its objectives while still participating in various leisure activities like sprinting where he has broken his own record. By defining the issues of security in theatrical terms and approaches, the Copenhagen school has managed to coin its way of influencing the society on the applicability and on the functionability of the institution in separating concepts of security with other political and social ideas.
The referent object of security
The referent objects are those parameters that are seen as being subject to excessive threats and failure to address their plights may result into total extinction. When addressing the need for security measures, there are many issues that should be mentioned. Economic security is one such followed by food security. In addition, health, environment, personal, community and political security are equally important when addressing the security issues (Tadjbakhsh and Chenoy 56). In this regard, in determining the referent object in security, it is important to define the object being affected by all the defined parameters. From the explanations, it is obvious that humans are the referent objects of security. This is because all the issues affect them in security. All the aforementioned issues are subject to the survival of humans and when neglected, humans are deemed to suffer in one way or another.
Intelligence in national security
Intelligence has been used for many years in other fields save for security. However, these functions have changed and intelligence has emerged as the major concept behind maintaining a secure society. Intelligence collects a lot of vital information on the security status of a country. Through this information, strategies to counter any perceived threat are implemented in order to maintain a safer and integrated system.
The Intelligence and National security journal has been developed with aims of maintaining a safer environment for the citizens in the local and international front. National intelligence services are a body that has been in existence in many nations and it has always been mandated with developing and maintaining a safer environment for the country and world at large. The body is therefore a worldwide entity that checks of the possible threats in local and international front and develops means of dealing with the threats.
Balancing liberty and security
The aspect of balancing liberty and security has been an issue that has generated mixed reactions from many quarters in the world. Firstly, security has been perceived with uttermost importance to neglect the equally important liberty. The courts are the prime players in ensuring that the two aspects are balanced. Since public safety cannot be overlooked, the same is true for liberty. For this reason, constitutional guidelines on liberty are the most applicable in this context. This is because, with constitutional guidelines, the plain view of doctrine is limited and from this, law enforcers are given rare chance of being tough on terrorism and other aspects of national security while still guaranteeing the citizens, their constitutional rights and liberty. It can therefore be said that the judicial system have the responsibility of making tough the laws on security and terrorism, while still letting the citizens to enjoy their freedom and liberty.
Concept of human security
The concept of human security was started after the cold war era and its applicability has been met by mixed reactions from many quarters. Firstly, this aspect has been generalized to an extent that scholars have regarded the concept as vague. However, there are three aspects on which the concept is based; democratization, internationalization and socialization. From these supporting pillars, this concept finds a new meaning and essence in the live of humans.
The different pillars first established the need to have domestic order and security among its citizens. Through these responsibilities, the concept was further expounded to include the respect and recognition of the presence of a global idea and hence the aspect of internationalization. While this issue operated under the political needs, the concept elaborates on the need to focus on both economic and social needs within the concept of national security. This means that the concept has always been outlined within the contexts of the traditional and modern definitions at which all the aspects of human need for security are outlined.
Concept of societal security
Since humans are more susceptible to trust other individuals within the same race, that is the human race, many problems and especially security issues are deemed to arise. These integrations look appealing to the humans up to a certain extent (Feldstein 33). This is the extent of societal security. This is defined as the aspect of a group protecting itself from some few individuals from the same group. Rather than concentrating on individuals against individuals or one group against another, the societal security deals with the protection of one group against some dangerous individuals in the same group (International Labour Office 23). Society therefore makes an analysis of its members and determines the ones who appear as a threat to the entire group. Through this analysis, these individuals are monitored in a bid to prevent possible harm to the entire community.
Difference between positive and negative peace
While peace is defined in general perspective, there are in fact two definitions and two types of peace. These are the positive and negative peace processes. The negative peace process consists of the process of ending conflicts and the approach of bringing an end to violence and other conflicts. It is basically the implementation of peace without any conflict. In this regard, the negative peace is defined as the act of ending a hitherto conflicting encounter or the essence of making an ensuing war to stop (Barash and Webel 6). Many have applauded the aspect of lack of violence and conflict since it generates a concept of possible integration. However, since it’s only the war which is ended, the causal effects as well as the fueling factors are left untouched and chances of another war are very large.
Positive peace entails the use of diplomatic influences to bring conflicting groups into a consensus. This is mainly through dialogues, addressing the root causes and establishing an operational framework to guide the countries hitherto in war. It therefore entails ending social, economic and political pressures like poverty, bad governance and illiteracy in order to establish a stronger foundation for a lasting cohesion between the affected parties (Press-Barnathan 11). This process is the best since it quells the conflict and ensures that the causal effects are dealt with comprehensively to avoid future confrontations.
Protracted social conflict" (Azar) and "new war" (Kaldor)
The social conflict that was defined by Azar was based on the idea that humans will always engage in conflicting activities so long as there exists a societal gap. The conflicts between states is one such conflict that was mainly influenced by the political and military strength and it does so little to focus on the other needs and influences among humanity (Bellamy, Williams and Griffin 251). The Kaldor idea on the new war is based on the different social, political, economic and personal influences that trigger war. While these issues look less compelling, their applicability is a reality that each individual cannot deny.
Generations of peacekeeping
The peacekeeping process has been adapted as a global concept that entails the intervention and resolution to conflicts in various parts of the world. This strategy has been in existence for many years and has evolved over from many generations past. The first generation is the 1st generation peacekeeping that was mandated with maintaining peace during the cold war (Lijn 35). This was replaced by the post-cold war participants who ensured that the countries involved in the cold war did not resolve to further conflicts. Then came the multidimensional peacekeeping that saw the intervention of peacekeeping troops in regions marred by civil wars. From observation, these peacekeeping troops embarked on the use of force to quell any ensuing conflict. The multidimensional peacekeeping units are mostly referred to as the second generation and their approach differs from that hitherto used by the first generation. They approach the conflicts with equal force and their main intention is to have any ensuing conflict being terminated.
Widening and deepening in peace operations
The concepts of widening and deepening of the peace process is predetermined by several factors. The issue of widening peace process entails the increase in the number of member states to the signing of a certain treaty (Laurent and Maresceau 124). This means that the aspect of having more members enhances the strength of the treaties by ensuring that there are large numbers to support the peace process. The concept of deepening entails the increase in integration between the member states and this integration is aimed at bringing alliances which can be very important in implementing and developing peace (Kuhnhardt 74). These two approaches are said to operate hand-in-hand since widening results to deepening in most cases. With increased membership, the countries merge.
Non-violence resistance is a concept that was developed many years ago, but has been in operation for several years now. Firstly, this concept is mainly focused on maintaining some six principles (Omer 175). The first is that evil can be resisted without violence. Secondly, non-violence earns the friendship of the adversaries (Conflict Research Consortium 1). In addition, the evil but not the perpetrators are liable. Suffering is a must in violence approaches. The strategy also avoids physical and emotional suffering and lastly a non-violent resister has a deep faith and hope for the future.
Principled and tactical non-violence
There are two types of non-violence. There is the tactical and the principled non-violence (Dexter and Medija 1). The tactical non-violence deals with the evasion from physical violence alone. Other violent aspects are common and the aspect of holding grudges and seeking to win by coercion are common aspects. The principled non-violence addresses the approach to violence by observing both physical and psychological violence (Shepard 1). While the aim of the tactical is to subdue and defeat, the objective of the principled non-violence is to convert and make amends with the adversary.
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