The Spanish conquistadors defeated the powerful Inca and Aztec Empires quickly despite the low numbers of the Spaniards invading America. The Spaniards defeated the Aztecs in the year 1519, under the leadership of Hernan Cortes. In the year 1533, the Incas were defeated by the Spaniards under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro (HJ, 2015). Some of the factors that enabled the Spanish conquistadors to defeat the Aztecs and the Incas include superior technology; alliances with the natives; high training and education; infecting the Aztecs and Incas with diseases such as smallpox; the use of well trained animals such as dogs and horses; and a culture more focused on war.
The Spanish conquistadors possessed superior technology that enabled them to make superior weapons. Iron and steel were used to make armor and swords. The Incas and Aztecs fought in the nude and used weapons made of lesser metals and wood (HJ, 2015). The weapons of the Incas and Aztecs could not pierce the armor of the Spaniards. The Spaniards were able to kill many people because they did not wear protective clothing. The Spaniards also used gunpowder to fight the Aztecs and Incas.
The Spanish conquistadors made alliances with other natives in the region because they had lesser numbers. The other natives were willing to join the Spaniards because of the harsh treatment they received from the Incas and the Aztecs (HJ, 2015). The Spaniards had also received a lot of training and education about war due to the raging European war that ensued after the Roman Empire fell. The Spanish conquistadors also carried diseases and germs so as to infect the Incas and the Aztecs. Smallpox was one of the diseases that were used by the Spaniards. Smallpox spread like wildfire, and resulted in the death of many Incas and Aztecs.
The Spaniards also used highly trained dogs known as Spanish Mastiff to kill the nude armies (HJ, 2015). These dogs were fearless, and very effective. The Spaniards also used horses that enabled them to move at greater speeds to reach the armies of Incas and Aztecs. The culture of the Spaniards was more focused on war compared to the natives who were more focused on hunting and gathering. The two different cultures made the Spaniards more prepared for war as opposed to the natives.
HJ. Spanish Conquistadors. 2015. Web. 22 Jul. 2015. http://thehistoryjunkie.com/spanish-conquistadors/