People, because of their social interaction among themselves, always determine their social, physical, and emotional development and the way they take life in future. Hence, stuttering is one of the contributors of how an individual develops in the above development area of an individual life.
This literature review will look at stuttering as an obstacle towards the achievement towards the achievement of a positive take by an individual towards life. On the same, the age bracket that will be used as a case study will be between 3-4 years, studying a population of 3-4 number of children as a representative of the group to come up with the analysis.
1) Study participants and their characteristics
The cognitive characteristics of this group are those that are still developing and learning new skills about life including speaking. At this age, the children are exposed to new aspects of life. Grasping of new concepts in their social, physical and emotional lifestyle is established. These characteristics always affect preschool children who undergo a lot of interaction with their peers who influence the rate of their development either negatively or positively.
Negative influence result from the interaction between peers, what they involve themselves in result in depression of the individual who will not accept the corrections, ridicule e.t.c that is rampant at this stage. Because of this the individual might feel inferior among his peers, feel isolated and refuse to speak when spoken to. Positive influence also result because of the interaction of the individual with his peers but, in this case, the individual responds by taking the corrections and ridicule from his peers as encouraging. Unlike the negative influence, positive influence result to a lot of interaction with the peers, no feeling of inferiority, and high self-esteem.
2) Importance of the topic
Many authors who write about this topic have a reason why they want people to understand the social, physical and emotional development of children and how this may affect the perception of the child in his lifestyle. They try to argue that at this age children acquire many skills that will help them in the course of their life. E.g., fluency in speaking, interaction with their peers results to positive development of their self-esteem. This ideology is also common with those who undertake the role of caring for children e.g. parents.
There has been difficulty in determining the different social perceptions adopted by different children in their social life. The research was conducted to come up with a resolution that tries to explain the reason behind the stuttering in children and how this affects the cognitive, affectual and behavioral aspects of an individual and come up with solutions that will ensure this disparity is reduced among children of this age for example through treatment of the same.
3) Procedures used in the research
First, they came up with the method they will use to attain their goal. They adopted a collective approach to achieve the aim of the research. A procedure that could easily predict the outcome of the study, which is applying both theoretical and factual copy logic of reasoning involving the analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data through the study of the individuals involved in both the nonplay and play interaction in the actual playing ground.
They assembled 4 children 3 boys 1 girl who were under the treatment process, and set certain qualification that each individual had to have in order to fit in the research procedures. After which they came up with questionnaires where the individuals and their parents were to answer the open and closed questioned contained in the questionnaire. Video recording was carried out during outdoor free play sessions on the individuals to establish the transcription of free play sessions, validity of the interobserver reliability, and the general peer responses to stuttered utterances and its patterns and how it did not or it did elicit negative responses. Their reaction with the participants was a free and interactive one.
4) Outcome of the research
The researchers noted that stuttering indeed had some social results for all the participants, this resulted in most of the participants taking actions like isolating themselves, being unable to directly communicate with their peers especially in the sociadramatic plays. They also noted that indeed a lot of adult’s perception to certain issues were as a result of the way they associated with their peers in their childhood and the kind of responses they had that influenced them positively or negatively. E.g. acts of depression, isolation, and difficulty in interaction with peers.
5) Clinical relevance
This kind of information that was arrived at by the authors after carrying the study is very essential in our daily to life as parents, as people whose profession directly involve their association with children who are at this critical stage of development. This information is quite relevant to anybody because each person at a stage in their life interact with children who are at this stage and should be able to understand them and help them go through this stage.
We might think children in the process of cognitive, affectual and behavioral growth, do not need our help, but our ignorance on this might be affecting some children either negatively or positively. There is no need to assume a stage that is critical in every individual’s growth process.